Essay about Syllabus Designing - Review of Literature

5830 Words Apr 14th, 2012 24 Pages

An essential step in any research project is the literature review. The function of the literature review is to provide background information on the research question, and to identify what others have said and/or discovered about the question. It may well be that in the course of carrying out the literature review, you come across a study which answers the very question you are proposing to investigate. The literature review, if carried out systematically, will acquaint the researcher with previous work in the field, and it should also alert you to problems and potential pitfalls in the chosen area.

English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is often underestimated because of teachers' attitudes which are often
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(2) [W]hat the learner needs to do to actually acquire the language.
This is a process-oriented definition of needs, and relates to ‘transitional behavior’, the means of learning. In ESP, the ends of learning are as important as the means in spite of being normally goal-oriented (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987; McDonough, 1984;
Robinson, 1991), that is, ESP is meant “the teaching of English, not as an end in itself, but as an essential means to a clearly identifiable goal.” (Mackay, 1978, p. 92)

The term of ‘ESP’ has thus been used by different people to mean different things
(Blackie, 1979). Nonetheless, the claims for ESP normally have in common in a sense that ESP is not a new approach, but an emphasis on English teaching that should be matched to the students’ specific needs and purposes for their study of English (De Jesus,
1999; Hutchinson & Waters, 1984, 1987; La Perla, 1984; Mackay, 1978; McDonough,
1984; Munby, 1978, 1996; Robinson, 1980, 1991; Strevens, 1977; Swales, 1985).
Chambers and McDonough (1981) argue that the ‘specific’ in English for specific purposes should refer to both the purpose the language is being used for and the language itself. Three kinds of purposes suggested by Mackay and Mountford (1978) are:

1. “occupational requirements”, e.g. for international telephone operators, civil airline pilots, etc.;
2. “vocational training program”, e.g. for hotel and catering staff, technical trades, etc.; and
3. “academic or

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