Superman To The Rescue Summary

Better Essays
Summary of: Superman to the rescue: Simulating physical invulnerability attenuates exclusion-related interpersonal biases
In the article, Superman to the rescue: Simulating physical invulnerability attenuates exclusion-related interpersonal biases, the authors, Julie Y. Huang, Joshua M. Ackerman, and John A. Bargh (2013) address the theory that simulating physical invulnerability can affect exclusion-related positive and negative feelings toward in and out-groups. The researchers want to test the correlation between danger and exclusion. They expected to find results that explain how the two correlate and if they create interpersonal biases. There are three studies in this experiment which each focus on different aspects of exclusion, and
…show more content…
The participants who had previously been socially excluded and stimulated invulnerability were much less interested in becoming social and contacting members of their in-group than the participants who imagined being able to fly. Participants who had imagined being invulnerable only became less depended on social contact when they had been previously excluded. These first two studies agree with the hypothesis that people who imagine being invulnerable to physical threat can have changed attitudes regarding social exclusion. These attitudes were only affected when feelings of exclusion were recalled and not neutral topics. The findings of the third study correlated with the results of the second study. It found that after recalling an experience in which they were excluded, they had a decreased desire to make social contact with people in their in-group. However, in both studies it was found that a decreased desire for social connection only occurred when the participant had been …show more content…
They found that these studies demonstrated a connection between primed invulnerability and a change in responses toward outgroups. The authors concluded that physical invulnerability does not simply increase positive emotions, but instead it stops the compensatory responses when being excluded from social groups. Current research proves that mental experiences can relieve physical threat and decrease reactions towards outgroups. The data from the first study is consistent with the author’s hypothesis because it expressed the correlation between exclusion and the risk of physical harm. The author’s theory was fully supported by the data, and I agree with the authors conclusions because of this. The tests show that those primed with exclusion-related feelings have altered feelings toward outgroups, and the various studies prove this. I believe that the studies were accurately tested in order to find true

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Essay On Social Exclusion

    • 1396 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Moreover when a target had insulted the participants, participants in the excluded conditions blasted the target with higher levels of an aversive noise. However, participants who were excluded did not display more acts of aggression towards someone who praised them. This showed that emotion wasn’t the determining factor on whether aggressive behaviour was displayed but a person experiencing social exclusion was the reason for the presence of aggression (Twenge et al, 2001). Emerging research into the consequences of social exclusion has also found that social exclusion can encourage social reconnection and trust. Derfler-Rozin et al in 2010 found that participants who were told that they were likely to be excluded were more trusting toward others compared to both control conditions, i.e.…

    • 1396 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Situational Characteristics Of The Emergency”, Russell, D. Clark III and Larry E. Word discussed about the interest of the bystander effects in situations. Based on the studies of Darley and Latane, studies proved that people are less likely to help in a situation in the presence of others, giving the responsibilities to the other individuals in the group to help in the situation. The article also included different studies from different psychologist about the bystander effect. The idea is if a person alone or in a group are they more likely to help in a nonemergency situation than an emergency situation. In this article, the authors decided to conduct to two different experiments.…

    • 1180 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Barg Theory

    • 2227 Words
    • 9 Pages

    The results showed that there was a significant effect of condition on attitudes toward the stigmatized groups. The predictions were consistent with the results. People who were simulated invulnerability were more positive and even more favorable toward the stigmatized groups. Ultimately, Study 1 successfully proved that eliminating the threat of injury, not the threat of pain, weakened the out-group attitudes susceptible to…

    • 2227 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The Influence Of Exclusion

    • 1619 Words
    • 7 Pages

    The participants were to then recall a time where they were socially excluded or a negatively valenced control experience (this means a time where they had lost something special or valuable to them and never found it). They were then again randomly split into 2 groups being one which they simulated being invulnerable to injury or the ability to fly. The participants then used the same social connection scale used in study 2. The participants primed with exclusion with the simulation of invulnerability showed a much lower interest in contacting their friends than did the group with the ability to fly simulation. It is also noted that participants whether primed with exclusion or primed with loss did show any noticeable difference between each other.…

    • 1619 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Participants also rated themselves less likely to help the student in these two conditions. Tanaka (1999) found that participants who view their own behaviors as fair tend to view the behaviors of others as unfair. Participants in the present study may have viewed a fellow student as less deserving due to their own past experience with similar experiences and lack of help. Thus, participants rated the student based on a self-reflection. The results did not supported the hypothesis that participants viewed attractive inactive students as more deserving, nor did the participants feel obligated to help based on attraction.…

    • 726 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Williams, Harkins, and Latane, expanded their cheering experiment with an added variable: if people thought their individual effort could be measured, would they have less of a tendency to loaf (Williams, Harkins, & Latane, 1981). In order to convince participants that their individual efforts would be measured, microphones were attached to each individual. The results clearly suggest that the belief their personal efforts are measured does discourage social loafing. In the second experiment they performed, they demonstrated that individual output measurability is important even when someone is working alone. So what can be done to discourage social loafing when individual output cannot be measured?…

    • 929 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Effectiveness over quantity. What is helpful in society and effective versus stagnated and futile. Although the study didn’t reach a way to help make schizophrenic people life productive, it help by making an understanding of the difficultness people with this disorder have in contrast to normal people. The negative symptoms may be a backtrack for individuals. Their disorganized behavior will consist of straying away from goal-directed activities.…

    • 824 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    (1989), the worse mood of low self-esteem participants after the difficult task in the current study is due to the tendency for these individuals to overgeneralize their failure to other aspects of their life, resulting in a lower mood. The other result of the current study, that people with high and low self-esteem did not differ in their mood in the easy anagram condition, is supported…

    • 1510 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    An individual who spends a long time in these institutions or socially accepted activities are less likely to act in a deviant manner because they do not have the time and the opportunity to take part in illegal activities. Hirschi’s last factor of social bonds is the…

    • 2242 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Tong (2010) explained the reactivity and the resistance perspectives in regards to Neuroticism. He said that based on his background research for the resistance perspective, people with high Neuroticism are less affected by the events and experiences that they get from those events than people with low Neuroticism (Tong, 2010). In other words, where the person is placed on the neuroticism scale in the five-factor model influences how they perceive their experiences and world such as people with high neuroticism not relying on their experiences for their emotions. Tong (2010) described the reactivity perspective as people with high Neuroticism experience greater change in negative emotions based on their experiences during certain events. This is the opposite of the resistance perspective in regards to how people with certain levels of neuroticism are affected by what they experience.…

    • 1508 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays