Summary: Incomplete Carbon Glucose

Good Essays
CHAPTER 4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Incomplete Carbon Glucose

Preparation for sulfonated solid acid catalyst must undergo a process which is called carbonization or pyrolysis. Glucose is natural organic compounds had been used as starting raw material because it is cheap and less toxic. Carbonization is an important step before the sulfonation process because it will form amorphous carbon composed of small carbon sheets [B] and produced sites for sulfonic group to be attached or inserted into the small of non-graphitic carbon during sulfonation.

After the carbonization process of the D(+)-glucose in the furnace at high temperature (400 C) with inert environment which is to avoid burning the raw material to ash [1-2007 zong],
…show more content…
It is very important to have the organic starting material in form of amorphous carbon because it can incorporate with large amounts of hydrophilic molecules including water and later the sulfonic group into the carbon bulk (Nakajima 2012). A good access of ICG with sulfonic group will increase the amount of sulfonic group to attach to the pre-cursor material and will increase the catalytic performance. This is due to the high densities of hydrophilic functional group bonded to the flexible carbon …show more content…
As have been mentioned earlier in Chapter 1, the objective of this study is to do comparison of physico-chemical properties catalysts from different types of sulfonation methods and the effect to catalytic performance in biodiesel production. Therefore, there are four types of sulfonation methods had been used to synthesis the carbohydrate-derived solid acid catalyst; method 1: sulfonation by thermal decomposition of ammonium sulphate (NH4SO4), method 2: sulfonation by thermal treatment with concentrated sulphuric acid (H2SO4), method 3: sulfonation by in-situ chlorosulfonic acid in chloroform and method 4: sulfonation by in-situ polymerisation of poly(sodium4-styrenesulphonate), method 4. Among all, sulfonation with concentrated H2SO4 is the most common method used to prepare carbon based solid acid catalyst [1-2014]. Therefore, this method has been used as reference parameter for the comparison with other methods such as catalytic performance, FFA conversion and FAME

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Catalysts 6.1. Methods of synthesis catalysts NO. Name of author Journal, volume, year Name of method Briefly about his work 1 Ashcroft et at. [10] Science,352, 1991 Vacuum 'incipient wetness' technique It is studied effect vacuum wetness method, and it is demonstrated that highly dispersed noble metal catalysts; thus leads to maintaining the efficiency for CO2 reforming of CH4 with suppressing carbon deposition. 2 Gadalla and Sommer[11] J.…

    • 1143 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    In this process, in the presence of Sodium hydroxide catalyst and methanol batch transesterfication is applied to sunflower oil for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel was characterized and then conducted using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), bomb calorimetry, sulphur content tests and Gas Chromatography (GC) and acidity and flash point…

    • 1110 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The resistance of charge-transfer (Rct) and the electrolyte resistance (Rs) could be calculated using the diameter of the semicircle in the plot and the intercept on the real axis of the semicircle [18]. At 2, 1, and 0.5% glucose samples of the EFC system, the Rct values were found to be 5.4, 3.5, and 3.9k Ω, respectively. Some properties of hydrolysate affect the charge-transfer on the electrode surface. The electrodes were modified by assembling GO/Co/chitosan composites and redox enzymes on the surface for power generation. Then, Rct is affected by both the property of electrode and modification of the electrode surface [19].…

    • 1213 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Arndt-Eistert synthesis – This reaction is hugely used for converting a carboxylic acid to its next higher analogue. It increases one carbon atom in an acid and produces its higher analogous acid or its derivatives like amide or ester. Through this process we can make α-amino acid and β-amino acid. The most important step of this reaction is known as Wolff rearrangement. This step converts diazoketone to ketene.…

    • 1316 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Isobutylene Research Paper

    • 1817 Words
    • 8 Pages

    MX 2301 is the Mixer in this stage of the process that mixes isobutylene that comes from (V 3101, V 3102) with Methanol from Methanol drum (V 2303). Next, Isobutylene and Methanol reacted in reactor (R 2301) to produce 95% of MTBE at a pressure that equals 3400 kpagauge and temperature of 120o C. In addition, butane column (V 2304) is available and it has two objectives, which are reaching 98% to 99% of MTBE production and distillation of MTBE from other components such as Methanol and unreacted isobutylene. MTBE transferred to the storage tanks and the other compounds go to Water wash column (V 2306). V 2306 is the next column that extracts Methanol from the mixture of Methanol and unreacted Isobutylene. Extraction process occurred by…

    • 1817 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Disadvantages Of Syngas

    • 2133 Words
    • 9 Pages

    Syngas, though has lower energy contents when compared with methane, which has been previously utilized [17-24] as reactive gas in OTR. Notwithstanding, syngas is considered in the present work due to its great stability and predictability, high thermal and electrical efficiencies, can be produced from renewable sources and has reduced carbon emissions. Mesh of 36000 grid points was generated using GAMBIT 2.4 software and the computations were carried out using the CFD commercial code FLUENT 14.0. The membrane type LSCF-6428 was utilized for oxygen separation in the modelling as they are reported to have high oxygen partial pressure and are chemically stable at elevated temperature. The transfer of oxygen through the membrane was modelled with the aid of user defined functions (UDF).…

    • 2133 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Catalyst Layer Essay

    • 987 Words
    • 4 Pages

    A catalyst layer is usually the slimmest layer in a PEM fuel cell; however this is an extremely complex component because of its porosity, several phases, and reactions (Spiegel 2008). An efficient catalyst layer should provide several functions at the same time; transporting the electron and the proton, supplying oxygen and hydrogen and water management. The structure and composition of the catalyst layer affects all these roles. Optimization of the catalyst layer can provide for all these requirements, as well as increase utilization of the catalyst, its durability and performance (Wilkinson et al. 2010).…

    • 987 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Castor Biodiesel Essay

    • 1981 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Production of castor biodiesel and its utilization in diesel engine Lalit Prasad*a, c, Subhalaxmi Pradhanb, S.N. Naikb, L.M. Dasa aCentre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi, India bCentre for Rural Development & Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India c Department of Chemistry, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Galgotias University, India Abstract This paper deals with the formulation of castor biodiesel (CB) at optimum condition by single step base catalysed transesterification reaction. The produced ester were utilisation in a diesel engine. The optimum conditions of oil to methanol molar ratio was kept 1:9,…

    • 1981 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Aeshah Alrubayyi CHM 643 Reactive intermediate has been important investigated in physical organic chemistry. It classes to carbocations, carbenes, carbanions and free radicals. Recently, observable intermediate classified as reactive, and an unobservable intermediate is kinetically when occurs at a branch point in a mechanism. A reactive intermediate is formed in the rate determining step of a reaction and then goes to give products in low barrier. Also, the hydrocarbon reaction of terminal alkenes gives mixtures of primary and secondary boranes that formed in an exothermic biomolecular step.…

    • 1102 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    The business shall entail the conversion of the natural gas to a special powder form known as methane gas hydrate (commonly referred to as dry water). The process shall entail mixing the natural gas with water under high pressure and low temperature. It facilitates reaction of the mixture to form methane gas hydrate, a powder resembling granulated sugar. This powder makes it easier to store and transport as opposed to the pressurized canisters and pipelines. In addition, it occupies lesser space leading to more quantities transported at a go with reduced expenses.…

    • 839 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays