Sultanate Rule Essay

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The Sultanate rule is known for the destruction of hundreds of Hindu temples across northern and central India. The rulers persecuted Hindus and promoted the forced conversion of the local population to Islam. This period saw the establishment of a Hindu Kingdom, Vijayanagar Empire, in south India in 1336 by two Hindu brothers, Harihar and Bukka. It was an attempt to protect the Hindu culture from the invading Muslim armies from north India. In 1398, the Delhi Sultanate was invaded by Timur the Lame, the founder of the Timurid Empire in Persia and central Asia. He killed thousands of innocent men and women in India. He defeated the army of Mahmud Tughlaq, the Sultanate ruler of Delhi and plundered and destroyed the city. After this massive …show more content…
He was an able military general and led several successful military campaigns to the Deccan region. The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent under his rule as he controlled almost the whole of the Indian subcontinent and kept the vast Mughal Empire united until his death. Aurangzeb was the most authoritarian Mughal ruler and ordered the destruction of several Hindu temples during his reign. He imposed a religious tax, Jizya on non-Muslims and prosecuted Hindus and Sikhs on flimsy charges. He executed the Sikh preacher, Guru Tegh Bahadur on charges of blasphemy. By 1660, there were rising incidents of rebellion in the Deccan as Shivaji Bhosle, a great Maratha warrior, assumed de facto control over several forts in the region and became a challenge to the Mughal forces. In 1666, Aurangzeb imprisoned Shivaji and placed him under house arrest in Agra. Shivaji remained jailed for several months before he managed a miraculous escape by hiding himself in a container box. After his return from Agra, Shivaji founded the Maratha Empire in 1674 and crowned himself as Chhatrapati. Shivaji advocated Hindu self-rule and promoted Hindu traditions in his kingdom. He was bravely able to defend his small territory in the face of brutal attacks from much better equipped Mughal Empire. Shivaji died in 1680 and was succeeded by his son Sambhaji Bhosle. Sambhaji continued the fight against the neighbouring Muslim kingdoms before he was captured and killed by Mughals in 1689. The Mughal Empire reached its peak towards the end of the 17th century. Aurangzeb died in 1707 and thus began the decline of the Mughal Empire in India. By this time, the trading companies from France, Britain and Portugal had firmly established settlements along the coastal belt of

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