Study Outline for Chapter 3: Federalism Essay

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Study Outline
Chapter 3: Federalism

I. Governmental structure
A. Federalism: good or bad?
A.1. Definition: political system with local governmental units, in addition to national one, that can make final decisions
A.2. Examples of federal governments: Canada, India, and Germany
A.3. Examples of unitary governments: France, Great Britain, and Italy
A.4. Special protection of subnational governments in federal system is the result of:
A.4.a. Constitution of country
A.4.b. Habits, preferences, and dispositions of citizens
A.4.c. Distribution of political power in society
A.5. National government largely does not govern individuals directly but gets states to do so in keeping with national policy
A.6. Negative views: block
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From what states demanded
B.2. To what federal officials found important as national needs
C. The intergovernmental lobby
C.1. Hundreds of state, local officials lobby in Washington
C.2. Purpose: to get more federal money with fewer strings
D. Categorical grants versus revenue sharing
D.1. Categorical grants for specific purposes; often require local matching funds
D.2. Block grants devoted to general purposes with few restrictions
D.3. Revenue sharing requires no matching funds and provides freedom in how to spend.
D.3.a. Distributed by statistical formula
D.3.b. Ended in 1986
D.4. Neither block grants nor revenue sharing achieved the goal of giving states more freedom in spending
D.5. Block grants grow more slowly than categorical grants.
D.5.a. Desire for federal control and distrust of state government
D.5.b. No single interest group has a vital stake in multipurpose block grants, revenue sharing
D.5.c. Categorical grants are matters of life or death for various agencies.
E. E. Rivalry among the states
E.1. Increased competition a result of increased dependency
E.2. Snowbelt (Frostbelt) versus Sunbelt states
E.2.a. Difficulty telling where funds spent
E.2.b. Difficulty connecting funds to growth rates
E.2.c. Focus on formulas and their impact
E.3. Census takes on monumental importance
V. Federal aid and federal control
A. Introduction
A.1. Fear of "Washington control" and jeopardy of Tenth Amendment
A.2. Failed

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