Study Notes for Advanced Pathophysiology Essay
Advanced Pathophysiology: Study Sheet Unit 1 * Unit 1 Learning Objectives
Exercise 1: Neoplasia * Define neoplasia and explain how neoplastic growth differs from the normal adaptive changes seen in atrophy, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia.
Neoplasia- Means “New Growth”.
Neoplastic growth proliferate (process of cell division) to form new tissue; There is no waiting for signals from the body that new tissue is needed; The ignore signals to stop dividing; They do not mature normally (differentiate), to do the job the tissue is supposed to do. They do not die off (apoptosis), to keep the number of total cells constant.
Normally cells produced=to number of cells that die …show more content…
Tumor-associated antigens-Found on tumor and normal cells
In regards to neoplasia, specifically malignant, anaplasia occurs because cells are less-well differentiated and lose the ability to control cell proliferation and differentiation; contact inhibition is present because cells grow in a disorganized and uncontrolled manner, break off and travel to invade lymph and other tissues, because division through touch of nerve cells is inhibited; Tumor antigens in neoplasia can help determine normal cells from tumor cells and help attempt to control rate of growth of antigenic tumor cells(It is responsible for direct killing of tumor cells and activation of other immune responses (p.143, text). * State the major ways in which benign and malignant neoplasms differ. 1. Characteristics of tumor cells, 2. rate of growth, 3. local invasion, 4. the ability to metastasize Benign tumors- have well-differentiated cells, look like cell of origin, Slow rate of growth (may come to standstill or regress, c/n suppress genetic program for cell proliferation, retains program for normal cell differentiation, grow by expansion, remain localized to origin site, do not have ability to infiltrate, invade or metastasize to distant sites, develop a capsule (creates line of