Study Guided Essay

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Unit 1 STUDY GUIDE – Constitutional Underpinnings

1. List and explain the five basic functions common to national governments throughout the world.

The five basic functions common to national governments throughout the world are to establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty. Providing justice means to ensure fairness to all people, insuring domestic tranquility to keep peace, provide for the common defense meaning provide an army to defend against attack, promoting the general welfare meaning to ensure health and needed things, and securing the blessings of liberty meaning to keep all rights of the people secure.

2.
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It was not completely democratic, however, because of the fact that they were not directly voting on candidates and because technically, their votes meant nothing in the case of a faithless elector.

8. What has since changed? How?

The electoral college still elects the president every four years, but it no longer has all of the say in who becomes president like it used to.

9. Who determined the eligibility for voting in federal elections? At the time of the Constitution’s ratification, who was eligible to vote?

The Federal Elections Commission determined the eligibility for voting in federal elections. At the time of the Constitution’s ratification, only white males who owned land were eligible to vote in these federal elections.

10. Identify the influences of John Locke on the founding fathers and analyze how his social contract influenced our founding documents. Be sure to identify the terms “social contract”, “natural rights”, “consent of the governed” and “popular sovereignty”.

John Locke had a profound influence on political philosophy; especially on modern liberalism. He argued supporting the social contract, an agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social beliefs. He believed in natural rights which were based on universal natural law, which were later stated in the Constitution as life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. He also believed in the consent of the governed, stating that a

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