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5619 Words May 3rd, 2012 23 Pages
Pharmacogenomics

1.Introduction:

Genomics:

The study of genes and their function. Genomics aims to understand the structure of the genome, including the mapping genes and sequencing the DNA.

Genomics examines the molecular mechanisms and the interplay of genetic and environmental factors in disease.

It is used to determine the entire DNA sequence of an organisms and a fine scale genetic mapping.

The field also includes study of intra genomic phenomena such as Hetrosis, Epistasis, Pleiotropy and other interactions between loci and alleles within the genome.

2.History:

The term genome was introduced by H. Winkler in 1920 to denote the complete set of
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➢ Comparative genomics -- the evolutionary relationships between the genes and proteins of different species.

➢ Epigenomics-- (epigenetics) -- DNA methylation patterns, imprinting and DNA packaging.

➢ Pharmacogenomics -- new biological targets and new ways to design drugs and vaccines.

➢ Functional genomics:-

It approaches involving the use of large-scale and/or high-throughput methods to understand function and expressions of major biomolecules. Identification of genes causing disease conditions and complex traits, including responses to drugs and other xenobiotics comprise as the most significant area of functional genomics research.

All kind of post genome sequencing analysis such as mutation or polymorphism, and understanding gene and protein function & interaction at molecular level is relevant from the pharmacogenomics or proteomics point of view.

UniProt/Swiss-Prot is a curated protein sequence database with high level of annotation description of the function of a protein, its domains structure, post-translational modifications, variants, integration with other databases and minimum level of redundancy.

Structural genomics:-

Genomics is the science of understanding structure, function, and evolution of genomes in all forms of life. It is an application of genomic data using biotechnologies, to solve challenging problems of biology and medicine.

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