Student Involvement : A Developmental Theory For Higher Education
Astin (1984) proposed a developmental theory named Student Involvement Theory (SIT), which measured the amount of physical and psychological energy invested in collegiate life by students. This theory emphasized on student motivation and behaviors, contrasting the traditional pedagogy theory that focused on subject matter, learning resource, and individualized teaching techniques. Traditional theories had some limitations: passive learning would occur when learning depended on content mastery (Subject Matter Theory); resource would be allocated inequitably and deployed ineffectively (Resource Theory); and the expensive cost to actualize the highly customized learning environment (Eclectic Theory). These theories aimed to measure what student learned as an outcome of development, yet SIT targeted at how to facilitate student during the development process. Under such context, Astin suggested the following variables to enhance student involvement: Place of Residence, Honors Programs, Academic Involvement, Student-Faculty Interaction, Athletic Involvement and Cognitive Development. He also recommended practices for faculty and administrators and future research topics related to the SIT.
Friedlander, J., & Macdougall, P. (1992). Achieving student success through student involvement. Community College Review 20 (1), 20-28.