Stigma, Discrimination, And Discrimination Essay
Regardless of the medical advances in HIV treatment, the social facets related to stigma, discourages the physical, mental and emotional wellness of individuals diagnosed with HIV (Sayles et al., 2009). Link and Phelan (2001) describe stigma as status loss, disgrace, stereotyping, and discrimination, all intertwined in a convoluted social process that can have a negative effect on health and life in general. It is the characterization of labeling differences with a negative connotation (Sayles et al., 2009). Of those most susceptible, were those addicted to substance use, and without a support system; many of whom were already marginalized due to sexual orientation, race, or substance abuse (Levi-Minzi & Surratt, 2014). Leary and Schreindorfer (1998) describes the four areas in which society customarily stigmatizes someone:
1. Pose a threat to others’ health or safety (by being dangerous, reckless, contagious, for example);
2. Deviate excessively from group standards (by violating morals, rules, or norms);
3. Fail to contribute adequately to the welfare of other individuals or the social groups to which they belong (because they are perceived to be incompetent, irresponsible, infirm, or selfish), or
4. Create negative emotional reactions in others (by being socially aversive, aesthetically displeasing, or emotionally threatening) (p. 15).
People stigmatize those perceived to be at least one of the criteria; persons living with HIV meet ALL of the above (Leary &…