Staging Of Cancer Case Study
Stage refers to the condition of your cancer, such as how large the tumor is, and whether it has spread (National Cancer Institute, 2015). The stage of cancer during diagnosis is used to refer to it, even where the condition worsens. When new information is added to the previous results, the cancer might change though the stage will remain the same. Staging helps the doctor to determine the proper treatment plan, to gauge the prognosis and share the patient information. “The future of cancer staging lies in the use of enhanced registry data standards to support personalization of cancer care through cancer outcome prediction models and nomograms” (Edge & Compton, 2010).
Staging of cancer materializes in distinct stages. The first stage is stage 0 where there is the existence of abnormal cells which have not spread. It is also referred to as a carcinoma or in situ. At this phase, it is not cancer. Stage 1 is localized cancer, and if it spreads, it develops into stage 2. Here, the cancerous …show more content…
It arises when the body has low levels of red blood cells due to having not enough blood or when the red blood cells get destroyed. Damage to the kidney or bone marrow affects the hormone erythropoietin which regulates the production of more red blood cells. It affects the hemoglobin levels which if weak, leads the body to have low oxygen levels and cannot work properly. The signs and symptoms include fatigue, weakness in muscles, dizziness, fainting, having a difficulty in remaining warm, and lack of sleep. The chemotherapy affects the bone marrow temporarily leading to the condition to improve once treatment gets finished. However, it may destroy the bone marrow which fails to make enough red blood cells leading to anemia. Treatment procedures include blood transfusion to get red blood cells, prescription of iron and folic acids pills, treatment with erythropoietin stimulating agents in