La Nina Effect

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La Nina is a climatic pattern that distinguishes the cooling of sea surface temperature along the tropical coast of South America. La-Nina is described as the opposite to El-Niño which distinguished by warm sea surface temperature in the equatorial region of the Pacific ocean. The Southern Oscillation (SO) is a change in air pressure between the western and central tropical Pacific. The pressure variability changes the strength of the trade winds, that results in affecting the surface ocean currents.. La-Nina and El-Niño are stages of the El-Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). ENSO is a series of consequent weather and ocean related phenomena. ENSO is also described by the changes in atmospheric pressure. La-Nina is part of the El-Niño Southern …show more content…
Through the teleconnections, atmospheric changes extend beyond the tropical Pacific and other neighbouring countries. The Indian and Atlantic oceans are affected. In terms of teleconnection, the oceans are also affected by location, for instance, during a La-Nina event the shift of rainfall in the western Pacific causes greater rainfall in eastern and northern Australia, whilst the central Pacific experience rainfall deficit. Each area experiences the event differently especially in timing. Whatever the area affected experience is due to the climate and the sign of anomalies may differ from one event to another particularly in terms of location. While the phenomenon is characterised by increasing sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean, la-Nina presents duration of low-average temperatures which are opposite to El Niño. When El Niño increases heat that hits Australia and North America, it is expected that La- Nina will bring rain in the same period.
La Nina occurs after the El Niño. It follows at irregular events normally of two to seven years. The effects of La Nina on weather locally differs from that of El Niño, hence La Nina is called the counterpart of El Niño. ENSO has a great impact on the positions of the jet streams over the Pacific Ocean. During the event of La Nina, the jet streams are pushed far to the North of
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La Nina event that occurred in 2010 was one of the greatest floods in history. Reportedly, more than 10 000 people were forced to evacuate and damages were estimated at $2 billion. La Nina has a great effect on many regions. In South-eastern Africa and northern Brazil the ENSO phase is characterised by rainier than normal conditions. The eastern and central Pacific is characterised by higher than normal pressure systems. This results in decreased cloud production and rainfall. Drier conditions are analysed along the west coast of tropical South America, the Gulf coast of the United States and the region of the southern South

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