How To Prevent Antibiotic Resistance

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Antibiotic resistance is a global health risk. Resilience to antibiotics occurs through the process of bacteria shifting and becoming resistant to the drugs that are used to treat the infections they root. In Tackling antibiotic resistance, Berendonk and colleagues state that “the magnitude of ARB and ARGs increasing the expansion of resistance among bacteria is not fully understood, nor is the idea that ARGs that are obtained by clinically suitable bacteria and environmental bacteria derive from the same source” (310). Globally, researchers don’t even have a fraction of the resources and technologies they need to learn more about antibiotic resistant genes and bacteria. Antibiotic resistance happens when there are a vast number of germs and …show more content…
Water that is distributed into in our environment, treated or not, contaminates plants, animals, and humans. Berendonk states, “Urban, hospital and pharmaceutical industry wastewater is among the main sources of antibiotic and ARB contamination in soil and water ecosystems” (315). This makes it difficult to stop the spreading of resistance through water because hospitals and pharmacies distribute and prescribe antibiotics various times per day. Another problem that is addressed is that water is an essential in order to grow food for consumption by humans and animals. It is used to supply our plants with energy, but with the heavy use of antibiotics, those resistant genes and bacteria are spreading throughout the globe, making it hard to not cross paths with the epidemic. Finley and other colleagues mention that if antibiotic-resistant bacteria are in the water that is being used for the irrigation system, it could be “contaminating products that could also lead to human/animal colonization with antibiotic-resistant organisms” (707). Also mentioned many times as a problem throughout research is that although treatment of water is supposed to take out all bacteria, most of the time there is still resistant bacteria in drinking water. Barlam and Gupta support this by sharing, “...studies have demonstrated that samples of pooled water from streets as well as from drinking water can also be …show more content…
When tourists go to other nations, they transport bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. Traveling can increase the amount of resistance in genes. Barlam and Gupta say, “Travel, including medical tourism, is a key feature of the international spread of these highly resistant bacteria within health care facilities” (13). When tourists travel into a country with already resistant bacteria in their body systems, if they visit a medical facility and transport the bacteria, the patient is contributing to the spread of ABR across borders. Also explained by Barlam and Gupta, they have given statistics that say, “ESBL Enterobacteriaceae increased from 9% pre-travel to 33.6% post-travel, while quinolone-resistance genes qnrB and qnrS increased from 6.6% and 8.2% pre-travel to 36.9% and 55.7% post-travel, respectively” (15). This means that the specific bacteria stated, Enterobacteriaceae, has a relation with the genes listed because they both increased when the tourist traveled compared to the before percentage of resistance. An example of a problem from traveling involves the drug fluoroquinolone. “Acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance is considered to be the key element driving the global spread of these lineages, fueled by liberal use of fluoroquinolones and international travel” (Barlam and Gupta 12). This means that this antibiotic drug is helping spread ABR because of

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