Solidago Altissim Analysis

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Methods Solidago altissim were collected from fields in Saratoga County in early spring 2015 and dried at room temperature for at least five months. The diameter of the largest circumference of each of the 84 dried galls was measured. Each gall was weighed and inspected for holes. If Eurosta were successful, there would be one or more fly emergence holes of 2.0 mm. If birds had preyed upon the galls there would be one or more larger jagged hole(s) from birds pecking into the gall to extract larvae. If the galls were hyperparasatized by wasps, there would be one or more holes of smaller than 2.0mm. Through JMP software, a t-test was used to determine if the mean diameters of hyperparasatized galls and not hyperparasatized galls, and the mean diameters of the galls preyed upon by birds and not preyed upon by birds, were significantly different. A t-test was also used to determine whether the mean weights of hyperparasatized galls and not hyperparasatized galls, and the mean weights of the galls preyed upon by birds and not preyed upon by birds, were significantly different. If the p-value was less than 0.05, the means were determined to be significantly different.

Results
Galls were observed to determine if selection was acting upon
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The mean weight of the 51 galls preyed upon by birds (1.31g with standard error ±0.06g and standard deviation ±0.46g, range 0.4g-2.4g) was larger than the mean weight of the 33 galls that were not preyed upon by birds (1.12g with standard error ±0.06g and standard deviation ±0.32g, range 0.4g-1.8g, p=0.0304) (Figure 4). The mean weigh of the galls preyed upon by birds was found to be significantly larger than the weight of the galls not preyed upon by

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