Solanum Tuberosum Case Study

Better Essays
Potato or scientifically named as Solanum tuberosum is a raw ingredient that contains high in enzyme polyphenol oxidase (Faisal. S et.al, 2013) which influence in the oxidative activity when the potatoes are cut causing it to become brown in color (Vitti M.C et. al, 2011). Potatoes are not encouraged to be sun-dried as the slow process of removal of water will induce the growth of fungal on the food's surface (Faisal. S et.al, 2013). Blanching treatments or osmotic dehydration method where the highly perishable foods such as fruits and vegetables or in this case, potato, are immersed in the concentrated solutions to produce intermediate moisture product. This pretreatment process helps to reduce processing time and helps to retain the properties …show more content…
This is to prevent the growth of microbial contamination and also to prolong the food’s shelf life. Moisture loss observed in potatoes is because of the intracellular spaces contain in its structure or its porosity. A study conducted by Wang. N and Brennan. J (1993), stated that there was a linear relationship between porosity and moisture content. According to Singh. F et. al (2014), one of the most significant effects on the porosity in potatoes is by the dehydration process. The removal of water during the rehydration process causes the cell to rupture due to stresses subjected to the cell membrane and cell wall of the potatoes. In addition, the stresses (usually generated by the water vapor) subjected to the cell membrane and cell wall will produce the pressure towards the food's cavity surfaces resulting in the increase of porosity of the product (Singh. F et. al, 2014). Therefore, it can be said that when the porosity increases, the removal of water also increases which lead to high in moisture loss of food product. According to Table 1, freeze-drying process causes the highest percentage of moisture loss (83.19%) in the potatoes followed by vacuum drying process (83.22%) and hot air drying process (82.77%). The percentage of moisture loss in freeze-dried potatoes are the highest because larger ice crystals form during the process of freezing which leads to larger pores formation …show more content…
M and Marinos-Kouris. D, 2003). The appearance of the rehydrated potatoes is shown in Figure 9 to Figure 11. The effect of the rehydration depends on the degree of cellular and structural disruption of the surface components of the potatoes during the drying process. In addition, the drying process will also rupture the dense structure in the potatoes which will lead to shrunken in size of the potatoes and reduced its hydrophilic properties (Krokida. M and Marinos-Kouris. D, 2003). The reducing in the hydrophilic properties of the potato results in the inability of the potato component to reabsorb water into its structure (Krokida. M and Marinos-Kouris. D, 2003) and decreasing the rehydration ratio. Results in Table 4 shows that freeze-drying method contributes in the highest rehydration ratio (5.49 ± 0.27) while hot air drying method resulted in the lowest rehydration ratio (1.98 ± 0.03). From the explanation above, it can be concluded that freeze-drying method causes less damage to the cellular and structural components of the potatoes and therefore increasing its ability to reabsorb water after undergo the drying process. This may be because of the low temperature used in the drying process. Hot air drying method has the lowest rehydration ratio because the heat involves in this drying

Related Documents

  • Decent Essays

    Potato Osmosis In Potato

    • 4246 Words
    • 17 Pages

    This decrease in the average percentage change is mass is due to the fact that as the concentration of sucrose solution increases, the water potential of the solution decreases so that more water molecules move into the sucrose solution from the potato cells by exosmosis. These results show different water potentials at 0% change in mass than in the preliminary experiment because the potato used is a different potato to the preliminary. Graph 2 shows that the water potential in the preliminary experiment was -1150kPa. The water potential in this experiment was -600kpa. This difference is because every potato cell will have a slightly different water potential and every potato will have a different overall water potential as some potatoes may contain more water or more sugar than other potatoes.…

    • 4246 Words
    • 17 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Refrigeration Abuse

    • 1634 Words
    • 7 Pages

    It was determined that the rate of freezing has a major effect on the size of ice crystals and the quality, texture, and nutritional and sensory properties of many foods. During slow freezing, ice crystals can grow to a large size, whereas during fast freezing a large number of ice crystals start forming at once and are much smaller in size. Large ice crystals are not desirable since they can puncture the walls the cells, causing a degradation of texture and a loss of natural juices during thawing. A crust forms rapidly on the outer layer of the product and seals in the juices, aromatics, and flavoring agents. The product quality is also affected adversely by temperature fluctuations of the storage room.…

    • 1634 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Improving technological properties of food, like reduced cooking time, increasing shelf life and elimination of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms are achieved at medium dose of about 1-10Gy. The product will be refrigerated after the radiation treatment. The process of improving the hygienic quality of food by inactivation of foodborne pathogenic bacteria and parasites is sometimes called radicidation. Fresh meat and seafood, as well as vegetables and fruits, may be exposed to doses of about 1 to 10 kGy. This process of extending the shelf life is also called radurization.…

    • 853 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Enzymes are naturally occurring proteins which are exist in all food. They catalyse chemical reaction by breaking down the food components by oxidation, browning and ripening that result in changes of flavour, colour and texture and lead to food spoilage. Apart from that, most of the fats and oils do not store properly, they develop off flavours and odours known as rancidity and sometimes toxic substances are formed. The presence of moisture, oxygen and light are among the factors that speed up rancidity. Food poisoning can be caused by eating food contaminated with bacteria such as campylobacter, salmonella, listeria, shigella and Clostridium perfringens.…

    • 2161 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Potato Osmosis Experiment

    • 610 Words
    • 3 Pages

    As per the research question: “What will happen to the length and mass of the potato when it is put in water and different concentrations of salt?” the length and mass of the potato decreases when put in a lower concentration of water due to osmosis. Water enters the cell through osmosis if there is higher water potential, but if there is lower water potential; water leaves the cell through osmosis. Evaluation Limitations and Weaknesses Significance of Weaknesses Possible Improvements Limit of mass is to 0.1g All measurements start from 0.1g Use a better scale with limit to 0.01g Trials Only 4 groups, therefore only 4 trials done; data may not be accurate At least 5 trials are to be done in every experiment Tapping out excess water from Potato tubes while measuring Access water may have been soaked out right before measuring them Soak out water all at once so none will be imbalanced Time taken Time may have been too short for this experiment Increase the time for the experiment Bibliography Pickering, Ron. "Organisation and Maintenance of Organisms." Complete Biology for Cambridge IGCSE.…

    • 610 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Potatoes not only can cause health issues but environmental issues as well. The article “6 Pros and Cons of Conventional Farming” mentions that growing potatoes can bring environmental issues to the earth. When pesticides are washed off the potatoes by rain, some of the pesticide goes in the rivers. Animals such as fish are located in the rivers and they die because of the poison from the pesticides (“6 Pros and Cons of Conventional Farming”). Potatoes are delicious to eat, but brings harm to the earth while being grown, my next topic is discussing about unhealthy food…

    • 1424 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Conclusion: As seen above by the graphs and data, an increase in molarity of NaCl solution results in a more negative percent change in mass. Therefore, there is a negative linear correlation between an increase in molarity and the mass of the potato; additionally, there is a strong correlation, as shown by the coefficient of determination (r2) of 0.965 in figure 4. For further evidence, the potato cubes that were soaked in the high molarity solution (0.5M and 0.4M) were much smaller and harder than prior to soaking, so the mass most likely decreased if the potato’s size also decreased. Comparatively, when the potato cubes were soaked in a low molarity solution (0.0M, 0.1M), the potato should become much larger and soggier, with a higher mass…

    • 981 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    That would result in an error with the experiment. For this experiment only half of the potato is used because if the entire potato were to be used, then it would be an extremely fast reaction, making it difficult for the reaction to be observed. Next the instructor will chop the potato into little pieces preparing it to be blended. Chopping the potato will help to minimize the heat the blender will use. If massive chunks were used, then the blender would use more heat to help the blending process and denature the proteins in the potato.…

    • 1790 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Bromelain Enzyme Analysis

    • 623 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Papain is mixture of enzymes obtained from the green papaya (pawpaw) fruit. Papain is a highly aggressive, indiscriminate enzyme causing significant degradation to both myofibrillar and collagen proteins. The optimal temperature range for papain is 65-80°C. Papain cuts the protein chains in the fibrils and also in the connective tissue, disrupting the structural integrity of the muscle fibre, and tenderizing the meat. Besides, ficin is also an enzyme used to tenderize the meat but it exhibits less activity against all types of proteins when compared to papain and bromelain.…

    • 623 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Emulsion Lab Report

    • 1446 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The texture of the overchopped frankfurters was less appealing because the emulsion was not stable. The overchopped variable had more globules of fat where the fat had agglomerated because the fat particles had been chopped so small that there was not enough protein, water, and salt solution to coat all the fat particles and make them stable in the fat and water emulsion (Dikeman and Devine, 2014). The overchopped variable also was less juicy because the emulsion was not stable enough to bind the water within the product, therefore it had lower water binding capacity than the regular frankfurter variable that had a stable emulsion and was…

    • 1446 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Decent Essays