In most of the readings we’ve done, this could be considered one of the most frequently asked underlying question. What are our basic duties and/or roles to ourselves and to society and what approach could be considered morally right or acceptable to in turn fulfill that duty? To answer this, you have to consider and attempt to validate approaches such as utilitarianism, consequentialism, etc.
The author discusses two meaning of justice: one being represented in Homer 's Iliad and the other explained by Socrates. In Iliad, justice is considered equivalent to vengeance while in contrast Socrates argued and defended justice to be like social and psychic harmony.
Iliad: Justice is described as “legitimate genocide.”
Koran: There is a close relationship between justice and retribution with the retribution continuously being tempered by mercy.
Old Testament: There 's a strong show of divine retribution, but also of measured restraint and limited vengeance. It even shows a further contrast in how Jesus’ mercy doesn’t even allow that limited reprisal at some points.
Confucius emphasized strongly on the fact that the foundation of justice is based on ultimate authoritarianism. The author compares this to the similar manner in which the foundation of justice in the Bible is based on …show more content…
But, as the author points out, this proportionality isn 't continuous "since there is no single term for both person and the item." Therefore, what is just is proportional and what is unjust unproportional. This leads to the conclusion that in an unjust action "one term becomes more and the other less;" the committer of the action receives more of the good and the victim the least. Though the ratio is reversed with an evil with the lesser evil being the greater good.
The author explains that humans are too flawed to rule. It is in our nature to lean towards self-interest which easily puts us on the course for tyranny. So only reason, the "guardian of what is just and...equal," not nature, can lead to a just social balance.
Justice in the Qur 'an is submission and the fear of God. Allah, as God is referred as, is described as "terrible in his retribution" yet all-forgiving. This forgiveness is shown through one of the themes of the Qur 'an: debt (something that can be considered central to the concept of justice). The example given explains a thief 's compensation for "what they have earned;" this is where the phrase "an eye for an eye" comes in followed closely by the biblical phrase "whosoever forgoes it [that is, retaliation]... that shall be from him