Principles of Sociology Study Guide Exam 1
Sociology • Systematic study of human society • Sociology is a science guided by understanding that the social matters: o our lives are affected not only by our individual characteristics, but by our place in the social world.
Sociological Mindfulness ▪ Sociological mindfulness is tuning in to how the social world works ▪ Familiar with surroundings(don’t notice the obvious ▪ Thanksgiving Ex: women cleaning up vs. men watching football. ▪ Families teach infants( adults ▪ School, church, way girls behave, way boys behave ▪ Interdependent ▪ Not accidently; on purpose ▪ Social norms we have to
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People maximize their rewards and minimum their costs • Functionalism o How structures (patterns of behavior) work together to promote solidarity, stability and the maintenance of society o Conform because of shared values – collective conscience (shared beliefs in the value of the group) o Reestablishment of equilibrium o Social change happens slowly and orderly ▪ Ex: family life o Criticism: Ignores how other institutions could meet same needs Overlooks negative aspects of family life • Conflict theory o Conflict is inevitable in society o System of social inequalities based on race, class, and gender – source of conflict in society o Social order is maintained through manipulation and control o Some are benefited, others are harmed o The HAVES protect their positions by using their power to maintain the status quo. o Inequality causes conflict that leads to social change o Criticism: Overlooks the functions of family not easily carried out by other means • Symbolic Interactionism o Focuses on face to face interaction o We learn how to act, by interacting o Emphasizes the subjective meanings people attach to their social circumstances o People help create their social circumstances and do not merely react to them.
Steps of the Research