The American Psychological Association (2015) defines socioeconomic status as being, “commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. It is often measured as a combination of education, income, and occupation”. A low socioeconomic status can create health disparities among marginalized groups. According to Statistics Canada, “income is a well-established health determinant—people with lower incomes tend to experience less favorable health outcomes, including poorer self-rated health, higher prevalence of disease, and decreased life expectancy, then do people with higher incomes”. A person with low socioeconomic status experience’s limited access to healthcare, …show more content…
Low income results in poor pre-natal and post-natal care. Poor prenatal care can produce health problems for both mother and child. Lack of nutritious foods, vitamins, prenatal care and stress can lead to preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant mortality. Low-income females are also more susceptible to become pregnant while in their teens and end up as a single parent which creates a person to remain socioeconomically disadvantaged. (Larson, C. 2007. Poverty during pregnancy: Its effects on child health outcomes.).
Key Point 2: Food Inequalities
1. Low-income neighborhoods lack grocery stores which are often referred to as "food deserts —referring to populated, typically low-income areas with limited food service availability, including supermarkets” (Karen E. Smoyer-Tomic , John C. Spence & Carl Amrhein, p. 309). Furthermore they state, “there is a subset of the population who live in unsupportive local food environments and who have few resources for accessing supermarkets” (Smoyer-Tomic et al., p. 322)
2. If people do not have access to a grocery store they lack the ability to obtain proper nutrition. For instance, 1.6 Canadian households face food insecurities in 2011, nearly 1in 8 families in Canada (Ives et al., 160). Furthermore, food insecurity in Canada is increasing (Ives et al., …show more content…
A balanced diet is a necessary component to a healthy life. Without it one is susceptible to dietary inefficiencies, malnutrition, increased the likelihood of developing and having difficulty managing chronic disease. (80% likely to develop diabetes, 70% report food allergies, 60% report high blood pressure) a person 's ability to work. (Society and the Basics, 2004, p.36).
Key Point 3: Inadequate Housing
1. Low-income earners are forced to live in inadequate homes due to the high cost of living. It is noted that since the 1980s Canadians have begun to spend a larger proportion of their income in the housing (Ives et al., 162). Canadian stats notes, "40.6% of Canadians spent over 30% of their income on shelter". Furthermore, it states, "In 1986, the CMHC and the provinces agreed to use the 30% threshold to measure affordability for the purposes of defining a need for social housing" (Stats Canada).
2. Inadequate homes can often have “lead, mold, poor heating, inadequate ventilation, vermin, overcrowding” (Ives et al., p.161).
3. There are often high health concerns associated with being exposed to these characteristics. For example, “crowded living conditions can lead to fast spread of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, Hep A, as well as elevated risks of injuries, mental health problems, family conflict and violence” (Ives et al., p.