Socialization Theory: The Parental Expression Of Culture And Academic Education

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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Theoretical Review: Socialization theory.
Socialization is the process by which human newborns begin to acquire the skills necessary to perform as a functioning member of the society, and is the most influential learning process one can experience. Although cultural diversity manifests in the actions, customs, and behaviors of entire social groups, the most fundamental expression of culture is achieved at the individual level. This expression can only occur after a person has been socialized by his or her parents, family, extended family, and extended social networks. This reflexive process of learning and teaching is how cultural and social characteristics achieve continuity (Chao, 2000).
Socialization
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However, the family situations cannot be separated from the general culture (example, societal values, traditions, attitudes and home environment). Accordingly, one applied aspect of this study is children’s academic performance as influenced by family structure, functions, values and other psychological dimensions such as parent beliefs. Lumsden (2004), stated the role of parents and home environment in students’ academic performance as a main factor which shapes the initial constellation of students’ attitudes they develop toward learning. He stressed that “When children are raised in an environment that cultivates a sense of self-worth, competence, autonomy, and self-efficacy, they will be more apt to accept the risks inherent in learning.” Fleming and Gottfried (2004) supported this style and stressed that their study “strongly suggested that parental motivational practices are causal influences on children’s academic intrinsic motivation and school achievement”. Accordingly, there is a need to instruct parents on motivational practices such as encouragement of persistence, effort, mastery of subject area, curiosity and exploration that are likely to impact on the academic performance of the child (Gottfried et al., …show more content…
This is congruent with the common assertion sociologist have that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home. It is not out of place to imagine that parental socio–economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school. Whatsoever effect the development environment of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. Parental status is one of such variables. When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so too does the nutrition of her young children (Lisa et al.,

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