Social Norms And Its Effects On The 20th Century Essay

1037 Words Nov 16th, 2015 null Page
of the European countries decided to ban tortures, only such countries as Africa, Asia, Middle East continued to use such practices. “By 1874, French author Victor Hugo naively declared “torture has ceased to exist.” But torture continued to be used against insurgents in Austria and Italy and against opponents of the Tsarist government in Russia.” (Waldron 2007).
Attitudes towards tortures in the 20th century
The 20th century brought significant changes to the generally accepted social norms, as for example public spectacles with tortures were not considered to be a kind of norm any more. It is not that tortures were absolutely avoided, but they were practiced in some closed basements, like prisons or detention centers for example. Some of the totalitarian governments, like those of Italy, Japan, Germany, Russia continued to apply tortures. Terrible tortures and medical experiments were conducted in the concentration camps of the Nazis. At the same time this new wave of tortures’ spreading, brought reconsideration of the international norms, which were fixed by a number of important treaties “the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the 1984 Convention Against Torture.” (Waldron 2007).
Apart of authoritarian governments, there were also such countries, as Vietnam, El Salvador, where tortures were practiced in the process of their resistance to communist insurgencies. America continued to provide guns and military aid to those…

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