Introduction According to Barnes (2005), social exclusion is defined as the condition by which individuals in a given society are disadvantaged than others depending on who they are. The various reasons to why some individuals are disadvantaged than others include race, ethnicity, where they live or migrant status, sexual orientation, descent, caste, age, gender, HIV status, disability (Barnes, 2005). Discrimination takes place in public institutions, for instance, in health and educational services and social institutions such as the household. Particular groups experience poverty due to social exclusion and this reduces the rate at which poverty is declines in a given society as a whole. Social exclusion can result in social conflict
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For some individuals, exclusion is a wider term that refers to poverty, while for others exclusion occurs as a result of poverty (Bonner, 2006). According to Barnes (2005), the definition of social exclusion varies from one country to another country. The term social exclusion was defined first in French where they considered it as citizenship social rights and material deprivation. They perceived poverty as a hindrance to participating fully in a society. The deprivation could result from inadequate income or reduced access to basic human needs that enable individuals to substantiate their social responsibilities.
Measuring social exclusion The relativity and complexity of social exclusion, its variation across outstanding dimensions, processes, and areas of social relations, and dimensions, have made it very difficult to define as well as to measure scientifically. Many approaches make efforts to capture multidimensionality of exclusion, but, apart from unemployment and low income they do not agree regarding which dimensions are causal or outstanding. The European researchers examine less tangible properties like insufficient participation in civic life, customary community and family activities, poor future expectations, homelessness, poor education, and poor health. Financial uncertainty is also considered a measure of exclusion from private and