Social Disorganization Theory Of Crime And Delinquency

1015 Words 4 Pages
Crime has been a daily social issue in our society for many centuries. The lack of control over crime has caught the attention of many researchers and academics who, from decades, have tried to study crime to seek solutions for this social issue. Crime has become an issue of interest to study by many sociologist and criminologist because it affects not only the victims of crime, the perpetrators, their families, but society as a whole. Theories after theories had been previously created to control crime rate and explain its existence, instability, and its links to dependable factors that were increasing the rate of crime among certain ethnic groups and disadvantaged communities. While some theories reasonably explicated their main proposition, …show more content…
Influenced and evolved from research studies and theory called urban ecology done in the 1920s by Robert E. Park and Earnest Burgess, sociologists at the University of Chicago during those years. In relation to ecological theories, social disorganization originated in the 1930s from members of the Chicago school who were studying urban crime and delinquency. The theorists behind this development were Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay, sociologist also affiliated to the Chicago school and to Institute of Research in Chicago (Shaw and McKay, 1942; 1969). Even though many criminal justice works attribute social disorganization to Shawn & McKay, the backgrounds of this theory are said to be the works of the professors Park and Burgess. In other words, the studies done by Park and Burgess, such as their urban ecology theory and its findings, directed Shawn and McKay’s research of juvenile delinquency. Their interest on previous studies, ecological theories, lead to the formation of the social disorganization …show more content…
Instead, it’s intended to apply only on street crime at the neighborhood level. This theory has strongly be influenced by the macro-micro theoretical integration. It held an outstanding position in criminology for more than three decades until the change of research attention to more individual explanations of crime (micro level of analysis). The studies of Shawn and McKay aimed to explain the high rate of delinquency and crime that occurred in certain disadvantaged neighborhoods of Chicago (Cantillon, Davidson, & Schweitzer, 2003, p. 322). They originally proposed that poverty, social mobility, and racial heterogeneity (macro social factors), as well as informal social control (micro social factors) caused crime. Both pioneers, Shawn & McKay, conducted their studies by plotting out the residential location of many juveniles from different areas of the city that had been referred to youth court. The studies from Shawn and McKay (1942; 1969) found a fit between the distribution of delinquents around different low-class neighborhoods of Chicago and a systematic pattern. The results of their studies showed higher rates of delinquency near the inner city and lower rates towards more affluent areas. According the social disorganization theory, crime rather than being caused by individual traits as proposed by Lombroso and similar others, it’s an issue

Related Documents