Soap Bar Lab Report

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4.0 INTRODUCTION TO RESULT AND DISCUSSION This chapter covers the result and also the discussion on the experiment of lab scale soap production. All of the findings which are the analysis of pH value, saponification value and moisture content of the formulation soap bar is discussed thoroughly throughout the chapter.
4.1 RESULT AND DISCUSSION The purposes of the experiment were to identify the weights of materials to be used in the formulation of soap and also to produce the average quality of soap bar using basic formulations from palm oil. Generally, soap is a salt of a compound and it is known as a fatty acid. Most soap is produced either by using sodium or potassium. Its molecule has a long hydrocarbon chain with a carboxylic acid group
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The blended oil needs to be melted in a water bath at 70-80 ˚C until homogeneous and mixed for 10 minutes. Then, half of NaOH, NaCl and EDTA solutions were added slowly into the mixer and the reaction needs to take place for 20 minutes. After that, the remaining solutions were added and continue to be mixed until it became semi-solid. The material was then being cut into pieces, covered with tissue and stamped with a stamper to produce the shape. The analysis of pH value, Saponification value and the moisture content has been conducted and recorded. The details procedure of making the soap bar was already stated in Chapter …show more content…
The saponification number can be defined as the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to hydrolyze completely one gram of a fat or oil (Simmons & Appleton, 1908). The saponification value depends on the average molecular weight of the fatty acids constituent of fat where it indicates the nature of the fatty acids itself. The analyzing of saponification value in this experiment required some steps to be run. Below were some of the procedures that have been conducted, however, the thorough methods have already been stated in Chapter 3 as well. Firstly, the test sample needs to be weighted nearest to 5 mg and put into a conical flask. The potassium hydroxide (KOH) was then being pipetted about 25 ml and poured into the conical flask. The flask was placed on the heating device to be boiled. After that, three drops of phenolphthalein indicator was dropped slowly into the solution and was titrated with the standard volumetric hydrochloric acid solution until the pink color of the indicator disappeared. The volume of HCl required for each solution to become colorless was recorded in Table 3 for all 3 test samples including the blank sample for saponification value calculation. The saponification value was calculated by using the formula below and the sample of calculation was shown in

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