Snakebite Envenomation Essay

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Snakebite envenomation is a neglected threat devastating many years in tropical and subtropical countries like India. India has a worst-case scenario with a high incidence of snakebite. About 216 species of snakes in India but only 52 are venomous from this Indian cobra (Naja naja), Russell 's viper (Daboia russelii), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus), and common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) are most deadly. The majority of snakebites encountered by these snakes therefore called India’s Big 4. Bites of snakes are usually fatal, the survived victims always on the risk of secondary infection arises from snakebite. Additional to envenomation complication of wound infection and soft tissue necrosis fasciitis, however, snakebite wounds polymicrobial …show more content…
As snakebite wounds are generally polymicrobial in nature, the possible involvement of pathogens and dept of the wound after snakebite becomes a crucial part to avoid complication along with envenomation. A very few microbiological data available on snakebite generated wound infection, a wide range of microorganism suggested including predominant aerobes viz. coagulase negative Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Enterobacteriaceae family species and anaerobes including Clostridium species. In light of the defined organisms, many authors had driven the work to find out the actual micro biota of snakes in many parts of the world. In view of the severity of the snakebite, several hypotheses explained for the infectious wounds originate after the snakebite. The secondary wound infection involve a variety of bacterial flora includes Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Shigella species., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Morganella morganii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterococcus species, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Shewanella putrefaciens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhi, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus etc and anaerobes includes Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus species, Bacteroides species(). R.S. Baylock 2001 studied bacterial …show more content…
There are many controversies on the use of antibiotic therapy. Based on the complexity of infection many authors suggested broad-spectrum rationale along with tetanus and rabies vaccination to decrease the risk of secondary infection and continued until manifestation are clearly disappeared (Kevin R. Kerrigan 1992). Antibiotics not only prevent the manifestation of wound infection but also accelerate the healing of the injury. Antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin + clavulanate plus ciprofloxacin + Tazobactam are the choice of treatment for snakebite generated wound infections (Dhanya shashidharan palappallil et al 2015, Shek et al (2009). To cover most predominant aerobic and anaerobic flora Amoxicillin / clavulanate + levofloxacin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, clindamycin, metronidazoles are also suitable alternatives to treat soft tissue infections (Richard F. clark et al 1983, C. M chen et al 2011, subramani et al 2012, R. S. Baylock 1999, L.E. Vissar et al

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