Smart Grid Technologies : Communication Technologies And Standards
Smart Grid History
As soon as electrical distribution grids came into being the need for metering arose. The initial devices were used for metering consumption, however modern smart grid technology uses two way metering and can switch appliances on or off according to demand and off peak tariffs. Over the last one hundred years many obstacles to smart grid technology have been overcome.
The earliest attempt at smart grid was Edison’s 1882 pearl street system that using an electromagnet opened and closed circuits to indicate by different colored bulbs high and low voltage. These different bulbs alerted the operator to control output of the generators to match the load. Consumption metering used a pair of electrode in electrolyte. Samuel Gardner patented the first electric meter in1872 that measured the duration of the current but not the amount. A higher precision current meter was patented by Herman Aron in 1886. By 1889 Elihu Thompson introduced the first wattmeter that could measure the amount of electricity supplied to a customer. A long journey of continuous improvements had just begun. Meters would run fast during surges and sow under overload conditions. In i940’s General Electric run a campaign demonstrating how utilities lost revenue due to slow running meters. Prior to load management era, load was managed by faults and burn outs of overloaded wires. The huge difference between peak and off peak…