Short Summary: The Sun And Our Star

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The Sun and Our Star

- Have you ever questioned as to how and why we are able to dry our clothes in the summer, and to be able to heat food and treat our water?
- This all thanks to the sun
- Without the sun, we all would be dead, it gives us light, heat and energy to heat up the Earth
- Most of the energy stays inside of the sun because of its gravitational pull, and all small amounts leave the surface in the form of radiant energy

Type of star:

Age: Yellow dwarf

4.5 Billion Years
Diameter: 1,392,684 km
Mass:
1.99 × 10^30 kg (333,060 Earths)

Surface Temperature:

10,000°C 5,600 °C

How Does the Sun Work?

Nuclear Fusion:
Fusion is a process where the nuclei of atoms bond together to form a heavier chemical element

• fusion reaction
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- We use microwaves over long distances
- We use microwave signals on our phones to receive emails and calls 24/7
- The frequencies of these waves can range from up to 30GHz to 300MHz, these wavelengths can be measured usually in centimetres
- To keep it simple, microwaves have higher frequencies than radio waves; shorter wavelengths
- (With a certain wavelength, microwaves can be absorb by water molecules, thus being able to be used in cooking)

Infrared Radiation (IR)
- As an object/material heats up, its temperature rises in the progress, this resulting in a higher average of intensity of the radiation and wave frequency
- Infrared radiation (IR) is a way that heat can be transferred from one place to another
- Infrared waves is invisible to the human eyes, the best way we can see or feel it is through the source of fire; heat or thermal radiation
- The source of heat is what we see almost every day like the sun, a fire, or walking on a warm sidewalk is all considered infrared waves
- An object that temperature is over 5 degrees Kelvin emits off infrared radiation, the warmer the object is, the more infrared heat it emits
- For example, an average human body temperature radiates a wavelength of 10 micrometres

Visible Light
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X-Rays

If you had ever went to the doctor to see if you fractured or broke a bone, they would use an x-ray machine to see what’s really going on inside the skin
- X-rays can be used for many purposes, mainly medical reasons such as examining teeth, and looking at gallstones

- As per the electromagnetic spectrum, X-Rays has higher energy than UV Radiation because, as we know, as wavelengths decrease in size, the frequencies of these waves tend to be higher
- The wavelengths of these waves range from 0.01 to 10nm
- These rays can pass through non-metallic objects, this including the human body
- This is possible because when a solid object or a dense material is struck by a high speed of electrons, x-rays are then emitted when the electrons hit a metal target
- 1% of the energy in the electron beam is converted to a photon whereas the remaining energy is converted to heat

Gamma Rays

- Gamma Rays are a way to kill cells (bad or good), as these waves are produced by the breakdown of radioactive atomic nuclei and nuclear explosions
- In addition, they are also created by the hottest and most vigorous regions in the universe including black holes, and supernova

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