Secondary Control Essay

7139 Words 29 Pages
Register to read the introduction… Primary control results when employees with individualistic tendencies
(see Bellah et al., 1987) attempt to shape the social and behavioral factors surrounding them, including co-workers and particular events, with the aim of increasing their rewards. Thus, many members of the organization demonstrate behaviors and establish goals that may be incongruent with those desired by the organization. For these reasons, formal control systems made up of rules, standards, and norms of behavior are created to guide, motivate, and evaluate employees' behavioral performance (Ouchi,
1977).
Weisz et al. (1984) have characterized
Japanese organizations as relying on secondary (informal) control. Under secondary control, people enhance rewards by accommodating themselves to the existing environment by adjusting their expectations, goals, and attitudes.
Secondary control systems induce people to subordinate their needs to a more powerful person or force, such as the work group or company ± the group approach, labelled ringi, practiced in
Japan is a form of secondary control
(Young, 1992, p. 684). As the practice of empowerment of group programs takes greater root in US organizations,
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