(see Bellah et al., 1987) attempt to shape the social and behavioral factors surrounding them, including co-workers and particular events, with the aim of increasing their rewards. Thus, many members of the organization demonstrate behaviors and establish goals that may be incongruent with those desired by the organization. For these reasons, formal control systems made up of rules, standards, and norms of behavior are created to guide, motivate, and evaluate employees' behavioral performance (Ouchi,
Weisz et al. (1984) have characterized
Japanese organizations as relying on secondary (informal) control. Under secondary control, people enhance rewards by accommodating themselves to the existing environment by adjusting their expectations, goals, and attitudes.
Secondary control systems induce people to subordinate their needs to a more powerful person or force, such as the work group or company ± the group approach, labelled ringi, practiced in
Japan is a form of secondary control
(Young, 1992, p. 684). As the practice of empowerment of group programs takes greater root in US organizations, …show more content…
Quinn, R.E. and Rohrbaugh, J. (1983), ``A spatial model of effectiveness criteria: towards a competing values approach to organizational analysis'', Management Science, Vol. 29, pp. 363-77.
Rodrigues, C.A. (1995a), ``Headquarters-foreign subsidiary control relationships: three conceptual frameworks'', Empowerment in
Organizations: An International Journal,
Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 25-34.
Rodrigues, C.A. (1995b), ``A framework for defining total quality management'',
Competitiveness Review, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 32-47.
Schein, E.H. (1984), ``Coming to a new awareness of organizational culture'', Sloan
Management Review, Winter, pp. 3-16.
Schein, E.H. (1992), Organizational Culture and
Leadership, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Schick, A.T. (1971), ``Toward the cybernetic state'', in Waldo, D. (Ed.), Public Administration in a
Time of Turbulence, Chandler Publications,
New York, NY.
Semler, R. (1989), ``Managing without managers'',
Harvard Business Review, SeptemberOctober, pp. 78-90.
Sethi, S.P., Namiki, N. and Swanson, C.L. (1984),
The False Promise of the Japanese Miracle:
Illusions and Realities of the Japanese
Management System, Pitman, London.
Shashkin, M. (1984), ``Participative