Sdfg Essay

10397 Words Dec 6th, 2014 42 Pages
CONTENTS

Introduction………………………………………………………………………...3
1 Nouns…………………………………………………………………………….5

1 Noun phrases……………………………………………………..........5

2 What makes a word a noun?....................................................................6

1. General characteristics of the Noun…………………………………..10 2. Subcategorization of the Noun…………………………………….....10 3. Grammatical categories of the Noun…………………………….…..13 4. Irregular Plural Nouns………………………………………………..19
2 The usage of derived abstract nouns in “Oliver Twist” by Charles Dickens…….22
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………....29
Bibliography………………………………………………………………………30
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Many of these are controversial, but some are discussed below. In traditional school grammars, one often encounters the definition of nouns that they are all and only those expressions that refer to a person, place, thing, event, substance, quality, or idea, etc. This is a semantic definition. It has been criticized by contemporary linguists as being quite uninformative. Part of the problem is that the definition makes use of relatively general nouns ("thing," "phenomenon," "event") to define what nouns are. The existence of such general nouns shows us that nouns are organized in taxonomic hierarchies. But other kinds of expressions are also organized in hierarchies. For example all of the verbs "stroll," "saunter," "stride," and "tread" are more specific words than the more general "walk." The latter is more specific than the verb "move." But it is unlikely that such hierarchies can be used to define nouns and verbs. Furthermore, an influential theory has it that verbs like "kill" or "die" refer to events, and so they fall under the definition. Similarly, adjectives like "yellow" or "difficult" might be thought to refer to qualities, and adverbs like "outside" or "upstairs" seem to refer to places. Worse still, a trip into the woods can be referred to by the verbs "stroll" or "walk." But verbs, adjectives and adverbs are not nouns, and nouns aren't verbs. So the definition is not

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