Schistosomiasis Case Study

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Introduction
Schistosomiasis is second only to malaria in the number of people the disease disables or kills around the world(LAPA***). It is a tropical disease that is a major source of morbidity and mortality for developing countries in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Asia (LAPA***). In these endemic areas, there are no resources for access of fresh drinking water and adequate sanitation. Therefore, human feces are the main source for spreading of Schistosomiasis. The causative agent of Schistosomiasis is Schistosoma, which is caused by a parasitic worm or a eukaryotic fluke (Colley, 2014). The parasites that bring about schistosomiasis live in specific kinds of freshwater snails. The contagious type of the
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These carcariae arise from the snail, which causes the fresh water to become contaminated. Infection can occur when skin comes into contact with the polluted water. Most human contaminations are brought about by Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium (urogenital), or S. japonicum (intestinal) (***). Each species is connected with specific types of snails, so the flukes ' transmission is characterized by their host snails ' environment range (Colley, 2014). Each species is endemic in certain countries. S. Mansoni is endemic in South America and the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico (JENIKIN**). It can also occur alongside S. Haematobium in Africa and the Middle East, particularly Egypt (JENIKIN HOLICK**). S. Japonicum is localized to East Asia (JENKIN**). S. japonicum corrupts a wide cluster of mammalian hosts, including dogs, pigs, and cows. S. mansoni can taint rodents and non-human primates, however people are viewed as the fundamental mammalian host. (Colley, 2014). The U.S. does not have endemic schistosomiasis in light of the fact that a reasonable snail host isn 't accessible. While foreigners can bring (and shed) shistosome eggs, the sickness isn 't preceded because of absence of …show more content…
Schistosomiasis is a water-based parasitic disease. It includes a sexual stage in the human and an abiogenetic stage in the freshwater snail host (Jenkins holick**). The fully mature worms are 12 mm to 26 mm long and 0.3 mm to 0.6 mm wide, and vary depending on the flatworm species (JENKINS holick**). Grown-up worms mate and lay eggs. Mature worms mate in the bloodstream and migrate to mesenteric vessels of the bowel or bladder where the females lay eggs***. The eggs hatch into miracidia, which are ciliated larvae, and penetrate the intermediate host, which is the snail***. When the miracidia impede on fresh water, the hatchlings are discharged and infiltrate the snail. Inside a range of three to five weeks, they agamically duplicate into several cercariae. The cercariae leave the snail and swim to a human or animal, where they enter the skin. Free-swimming cercariae penetrate human skin; migrate to the lungs, then to the heart and into the bloodstream. The larvae mature in the liver, growing to about 15 to 20 mm in size****. Eggs of the fluke can wind up in the skin, cerebrum, muscle, adrenal organs, and eyes. Association with the Central Nervous System transpires due to invasion of eggs to the brain and spinal

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