Sales Essay

5307 Words Mar 18th, 2015 22 Pages
CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE Introduction
This chapter contains discussions on the theories of motivation in relation reward systems and motivation in organizations, rewards and productivity, empirical literature on rewards and performance, and the techniques available to managers to ensure desired organizational behavior. The crux of the literature will be on effective reward systems which end in motivation which then leads to job satisfaction. In addition, a conceptual framework for the study of motivation and job satisfaction in organizations is also discussed.

Theories of motivation
There are two theories of motivation. These are content theories of motivation and process theories of motivation. Content theories of
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Although the theory was based on his clinical observation of a few neurotic individuals, it has subsequently been used to explain the entire spectrum of human behavior. According to Maslow (1954), motivation takes the form of the desire for protection from physical danger and economic security. Only needs not yet satisfied can influence behavior. A satisfied need is not a motivator. Needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance. Once one need is satisfied, another emerges and demands satisfaction (Maslow, 1954). Maslow identified five basic categories of human needs and put them in a hierarchy.
The first is the physiological needs which consist of the human body’s primary needs, such as food, water, and sex. These are needs which must be satisfied to maintain life. Maslow contends that until these needs are at least partially satisfied, physiological needs will dominate the activities of the individual and the individual will not be concerned the next level need and no other need will serve as a basis for motivation. When physiological needs are adequately met, the next higher level need assumes importance. The next need is safety needs include protection from physical harm, ill health, economic disaster, and the unexpected. Safety needs show up in an employee’s attempts to ensure job security and fringe benefits. Social needs, the

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