# Statistics Review

1923 Words 8 Pages
Statistics review: Role of statistics in animal sciences
Abstract
This review throws the light on applications of statistics in animal sciences, and answering the question of how are statistics playing a vital role in veterinary field and biology .Also it presents different statistical methods that can be used in different studies. The basic statistical concepts should be known. The subject of statistics includes, design of a study that it will provide the biologist with the most information efficiently, Collection of the data by using different sampling methods, and analysis of the data using different statistical tests. It is not necessary to understand the exact methodology of every statistical test used, but it is necessary to understand
They are records of measurement, counts or observations. Examples of data are body weights of calves [3].
There are four types of data: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Qualitative variables are measured with nominal and ordinal, while quantitative variables are measured with interval and ratio scale of measurement [5].The type of data is an important factor in determining which computations are suitable.
Descriptive statistics
Data collected and organized by the experimenters would be described by measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion. In scientific and technical literature, experimental data is often summarized either using the mean and standard deviation or the mean with the standard error.
Mean
It is the most common measure of central tendency. It is a summary measure for a quantitative variable. It is calculated by summing all the observations in a set of data and then dividing the total by the number of values involved. It is very sensitive to outliers. x^-=(∑▒x)/n Standard
It is suitable for either numerical or categorical data (Table 2). It compares the means of 2 groups to determine if they are the same or not. It is two types (paired and independent t test).
Analysis of variance
F test is a generalization of the t test (or Wilcoxon or Mann-Whitney U test) when 3 or more groups are being compared. There are both parametric and nonparametric analyses of variance referred to as ANOVA by sum of squares or ANOVA by rank, respectively (Figure 2).
Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
It can be used to measure the intensity of association between variables. The data must be normally distributed. It defines both the strength and direction of the linear relationship between two variables. It does not imply causation.
Regression analysis
Regression quantifies the numerical relationship between 2 variables that are correlated. Regression is better suited for studying functional dependencies between factors. It creates an equation where in if one variable is known, the other can be estimated.
Nonparametric tests
No assumptions are made about the data distribution. Ordinal properties of data are used instead of absolute data values. Statistical significance with a nonparametric test is difficult to be

• ## The Importance Of Biology

In biology, scientists use the scientific method in order to arrive at a scientific conclusion. The first step in the scientific method is making observations. Next, a hypothesis should be formulated in support of the observations that were made. Once a hypothesis has been developed, it should be tested. If the hypothesis is supported by the test, then it is advised that the test is repeated several times to be sure that it definitely supports the hypothesis.…

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• ## Animal Testing Necessary

There are many reasons that people believe animal testing is a necessity in modern research. Animal’s biology is very similar to humans, which is why we can use animals for human research. Animals are fundamental to biological and medical research. By researching and experimenting on them, we can learn more about different tissues and organs and how to maintain their health. Animal models help develop new treatments for diseases.…

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• ## Mesozooplankton Feeding Analysis

Due to this uncontrolled system it also requires certain assumptions to be made and upheld. As seen with the results from this paper if one assumption is not upheld it can create error with in the experiment. The mesozooplankton experiment on the other hand, because it is a controlled system does not require these microzooplankton assumptions to be made but does assume that the decrease in phytoplankton concentration is due only to grazing and not to other factors such as death or lack or nutrients. This method allows scientists though to more accurately examine the relationship between two specific organisms without any added factors that could affect the relationship. However, because it is a controlled system this method is not a very accurate depiction of what is occurring in the real world.…

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• ## Animal Testing Vs Human Life

Animal Welfare, “During the animal testing phase of a research project, scientists look to answer questions.How does this chemical affect skin? How does it affect organs, such as the liver, heart, or stomach? How does it affect behavior?” (Sepahban 13). Whenever scientists are trying to make a new type of medicine all of these things matter and need to looked into carefully. Animals provide us with the results of these questions.…

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• ## Animal Research: The Ethics Of Animal Experimentation

Due to the many medical and scientific discoveries, and the many lives saved with the help of animal research, it doesn’t need to end all together. There should however be a stronger use of the 3Rs principle, reduction, refinement, and replacement. Although the use of animals in experimentation is not fully ethically or morally correct, the perquisite for both humans and animals is too high. The limits on animal testing could be reconsidered, this can include the species of animals used, the number of animals, and the specific procedures and treatment the animals go through. To help end and not promote the unnecessary deaths of animals as a society we need to start buying and producing cruelty free products.…

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• ## Cons Of Animal Testing

Other than human protection, these studies provide job opportunities for further science research. Animal testing surely possess several cons, yet despite…

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• ## Animal Research Ethics

Bhattacharya et. al. (2011) implies that animal research has its limitations which may be overcome with the implementation of computer technologies, yet, Winston (2007) depicts animal research as the most reliable and informative. However, Winston (2007) does not explain what makes the animal models irreplaceable by tissue cultures or by in silico stimulations –-he restricts his evidence to historical examples of success stories in animal research. Although animals can be used as a convenient source of physiological, genetic or other biological data, computational tools may also prove their usefulness.…

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• ## Animal Testing Is Necessary For Research

Animal testing is necessary as scientists need to determine the effect of a drug on a whole living system (AnimalResearch.Info, n.d.). This would ensure the safety…

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• ## Nature Vs. Nurture Study

nurture resolution opened the doors to new perspectives of study that would include both factors and their subsets, such as the past one, their reliability is still debatable in the context of their replicability. Dick et al (2015), for instance, argument that there should a concern and special attention to candidate gene studies. One of the reasons they pose this concern is because there are different conceptualizations of the results depending on the field. According to Dick et al (2015), for psychologists and members of other social sciences the genetics-environment effects are interpreted “as a genotype moderating the association between an environmental factor and an outcome” (p. 41), in other words, it is the environmental factors the ones that are associated with increased risks. On the other hand, for geneticists the genetics-environment is interpreted “as an environment moderating the association between a genotype and the outcome” (p, 41), the opposite of the previous conceptualization.…

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• ## How Should Animals Be Used In Medical Research

If we take animals out of research what are these new medical researches going to be tested on? How will they ensure that 's the only way they test the advance in medicine? The answer is still yet unclear, without the animals I know one thing will be very evident. We could not have made the medical advances that we have today, without animal research. Regardless of some of the more interesting debates these animals may purpose is to advance medicine, animal testing is sought out to be adding to scientific knowledge through basic biology that helps us understand how living things work, and apply that understanding for the benefit of both humans and animals.…

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