RNA Polymerases

Superior Essays
In the 1960’s two scientists named François Jacob and Jacques Monod explored how the regulation of transcription of DNA affects the enzyme levels in a cell. They found this information through experiments in eubacteria and eukaryotes. According to Kireeva (2013) “However, the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase proved elusive until 1960, when it was independently identified in bacteria by Hurwitz and Stevens and in plants by the Bonner group” (p. 8325). There were also many experiments after these in which the scientists focused mostly on the mechanisms of the RNA polymerization (Kireeva, 2013). Kireeva also stated in her article that a group called the Chamberlin group focused on the pauses by E. coli RNA polymerase the group also focused on the …show more content…
(2013) describe that RNA polymerase (RNAPs) is a 14-subunit enzyme. According to Murakami (2015) the core of RNA polymerase (RNAPs) in organisms is composed of five subunits that can be found in all three domains of life (Early Research on the Structure of Bacterial RNA Polymerase para. 1). Minakhin et all. (2001) tells us that the main five subunits of RNA polymerase (RNAPs) are ω β ', β , αI and αII. The information for table 1 was found in the article “Requirement for two copies of RNA Polymerase (RNAPs) α subunit C-terminal domain for synergistic transcription activation at complex bacterial promoters.” Table 1 goes into details about how the subunit functions to help RNA Polymerase (RNAPs) during transcription. It also tells us about the gene that encoded it and also the number of catalytic sites that it …show more content…
According to many scientists the main and most important function of RNA Polymerase (RNAPs) is transcription. So, what is transcription? Transcription is the construction of RNA chains using genes from DNA as templates. Since transcription is the process where the information from a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule everything must work together. Griffiths et all. (2002) says that two strands of the double helix of DNA separate and one acts as a temple. They also stated that A pairs with T while and G with C in DNA. However, in RNA A pairs with U and G with C. Since RNA Polymerase (RNAPs) can be found in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes there are many different ways to look at what is happening. According to Jun et all. (2012) “The recently-solved X-ray crystal structures of archaeal RNA polymerase (RNAP) allow a structural comparison of the transcription machinery among all three domains of life” (abstract). When it comes to bacteria Yun et all. (2015) states that transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) in bacteria requires specific recognition by σ factors (p. 882). Griffiths et all (2000) says that transcription relies on the pairing of the nitrogenous bases of DNA. Figure 2 provided by Griffiths et all. (2000) shows this process in

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Assignment-3: CS696 Programming Problems in Bioinformatics. Describe and discuss different approaches for finding motif in genetic string. Introduction: DNA, RNA and Proteins, these are three types of very large molecules essential for every living organism, for their biological functioning. Each molecule, DNA, RNA and Protein, play a vital role in living organisms, without them no life could survive. Let’s understand functionality one by one: • DNA consists of encoded instructions which are necessary to maintain, assemble and reproduce.…

    • 1548 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Eukaryotic Synthesis

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages

    DNA produced mRNA in transcription in which the mRNA will be decoded to build a polypeptide chain of amino acids in translation. This process is one of the most complicated tasks that cells can perform using a great deal of energy to do so. To translate mRNA into a protein it requires a series of detailed steps and molecules including initiation, elongation and termination. After transcription is complete the mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels into the cytoplasm. Translation may occur in either the cytoplasm or the rough endoplasmic reticulum.…

    • 1359 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Next, short strands of RNA, called the RNA primers, are synthesized by an enzyme called primase. This provides a 3’ OH group for enzyme called DNA polymerase to begin replication. Without the 3’ OH group DNA polymerase would not be able synthesis DNA. The DNA polymerase binds to a DNA strand starting at the origin of replication, and joins nucleotides together to create a new DNA strand. As the DNA is unwound, this creates a replication fork.…

    • 1415 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    At the same time the loops contained tiny parts where a protein is called CTCF.Researcher found large parts of gene looped together. There were a lot of experiments that took place in my article talking about looping and folding DNA.They also talk about Y chromosome and X chromosome with the 3-D experiment. Folding happen in cancer cells they can use 3-D maps to help find a cure. This is just some of the experiments they did in the article I…

    • 802 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Decent Essays

    Dna Synthesis Essay

    • 795 Words
    • 4 Pages

    A part of RNA that is produced by an enzyme binds to the end of the beginning strand. RNA (primer) is the starting point for DNA synthesis. RNA primase is used to add the first nucleotide because polymerase are only able to add to growing strands. On each strand of DNA there is a sequence of nucleotides. The nucleotides is basically the place where the synthesis of a new strand will be made.…

    • 795 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Decent Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Dna In Biology

    • 714 Words
    • 3 Pages

    DNA is a macromolecule that is used for instructions when creating proteins and other activities. It is because of this that DNA (and other nucleic acids) are essential for life to exist. DNA contains genetic code that primarily directs organelles in a cell to operate in a certain way. DNA also carries information regarding the traits of an organism. These traits are often passed from a parent cell to its offspring.…

    • 714 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Lac Operons

    • 1587 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Genetic mutations are the source of numerous hereditary diseases. This has been discovered by the comparison of two DNA sequences with bioformatic software. Two sequences are aligned and compared in order to locate mutations in the DNA (Module 4 Protocol,1). Escherichia coli aka E. coli was used as the test subject in this lab because it employs lac operons while transcribing mRNA. An operon is a unit of linked genes that regulates genes in charge of protein synthesis.…

    • 1587 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Proteins are essential to maintaining cells by creating hormones and enzymes, and defending the cell. The arrangement of DNA and RNA bases dictates what protein is formed. When DNA is separated into a single strand, ribonucleotides attach to one of the strands and form messenger RNA (mRNA), through the process of transcription. When the gene is turned into a protein sequence by transfer RNA (tRNA), it is called…

    • 1175 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Dna Synthesis

    • 1283 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Thanks to biology, scientists now are able to answers these questions. It is all in the genes or more accurately the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is long chains of nucleotides that carries genetic information that is very crucial in human development. Based on the molecular structure of DNA, it is made of two nucleotide strands and arranged in such manner in which they coil…

    • 1283 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    DNA is like the instruction manual to making the protein. The first step involves making the mRNA through a process called transcription. In transcription, a small portion of DNA is "copied" through coding to make the mRNA. Now entering the next stage of protein synthesis, the mRNA leaves the nucleus to go to ribosomes in the cytoplasm. In the process of translation, mRNA, tRNA, and the ribosome all work together to create the protein.…

    • 1092 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays