Risk Factors Of Pressure Ulcers

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Pressure Ulcers
Pressure ulcers are a chronic wound that attacks the skin. Pressure ulcers also known as bedsores.
Risk facts
The most common risk factor of pressure ulcers is immobility: Improper nutrition is also a risk factor of pressure ulcers. Alzheimer’s disease considered a risk factor because of impairment of mental status (Berman&Slon, 2012). Because of their mental status, patients are unaware of the prevention of pressure ulcers, which makes them more vulnerable to pressure ulcers. However, the dryness of the skin is also included in the risk factors for pressure ulcers. Diabetes mellitus is also a risk factor of pressure ulcers because people with diabetes have sensation lost (Scemons&Elston, 2009). Age is an important risk factor
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Friction is rubbing two surfaces together, usually the skin with something else, like the skin with the bedsheet. Shearing happens when the skin layers crease over each other (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). Pressure ulcers happen because shearing and friction cause damage in the skin layers.
Stages Pressure ulcers have four stages (I, II, III, IV) as well as unstageable stage. Stage I is the first stage of pressure. The skin is usually red and still intact. The redness of the skin happens in the top layer of the skin, which is epidermis layer. In this stage, the wound closed, however, the color change perhaps visible to see. The colour of the wound will be different from the surrounding area (Strazzula, 2013). Stage II is the second stage of pressure ulcers. In this stage, there is partial loss of the epidermis and dermis layer. This is the stage where there is the appearance of an open wound. Ulcer in this stage is superficial and existing as a bruise, burn or skin tears (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). Stage III where the open wound gets deeper and extends down to the subcutaneous tissue. There is a full thickness tissue loss, which exposes the subcutaneous tissue. This stage includes a slough in the subcutaneous tissue (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). Stage IV where there is full thickness skin loss, which results in exposing the bone and the muscle.
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The physician or health care professional will start first by assessing the wound. During the assessment, the physician will obtain the patient medical history as well as assessing the wound. The assessment of the ulcers includes the characteristics of the wound, such as color, odour, and drainage (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). Assessing the wound is the first step of the treatment process; however, finding the stage of pressure ulcers is essential in knowing the right treatment. The main goal of treatment is to diminish pressure ulcers, reduce the pain, and control the infection (Berman&Slon, 2012). Treatment of pressure ulcers depends upon the stages. Stage I and II usually treated with the secondary intention, which takes several weeks to heal. Stage III and IV usually hard to heal, take a lot of time, and may treat with the primary intention depending on the condition of the ulcers. Cleaning and dressing the ulcers is an important factor in treatment. Because pressure ulcers must be kept, clean and dry in order to faster the healing process of pressure ulcers (Strazzula, 2013). Saline solution may use to cleanse the ulcers (Zaiontz& Sharon, 2014). There is a variety type of dressing; and the dressing is selected based on the stage of the ulcers. Stages I and II may use transparent film dressing. Hydrocolloid and foam dressings use as primary or secondary

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