Risk Factors Of Cardiovascular Disease

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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the preeminent cause of death for both males and females in the United States (US).1 Approximately 610,000 people in the US die of CVD each year, which constitutes 1 out of every 4 deaths. Furthermore, 1 in 3 individuals, or approximately 80 million adult Americans have CVD. In 2011, the projected direct costs from health expenditures and indirect costs from lost productivity for CVD and stroke, which is a long-term complication of cardiovascular disorders, were estimated to be $320.1 billion.2 This is particularly perturbing, because 80% of cases of premature CVD are largely preventable through lifestyle interventions like physical activity (PA) and improved diet. 2-4 An emphasis on preventing CVD before its …show more content…
Medical conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, chronic stress, hypertension, and high cholesterol, and lifestyle behaviors, such as inadequate diet, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, and increased alcohol usage are cardinal risk factors for CVD.2 Approximately half of all Americans (47%) present with one or more of these risk factors: 1) hypertension; 2) cigarette smoking; 3) elevated cholesterol. Behaviors associated with CVD have been found to be stronger predictors of cardiovascular outcomes than traditional biological risk factors such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes.5 Reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly behaviors, is vital to improving overall cardiovascular …show more content…
Numerous studies have demonstrated that individuals who participate in regular PA have: lower risk of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and obesity-related conditions; improved insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism; lower levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) concentrations and triglyceride concentrations.21 Significant evidence from observational epidemiological studies has been provided in favor of the inverse relationship between PA and CVD.22-24 Multiple studies have also shown the effects of PA in lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients.25-27 Regular PA is effective in lowering LDL-C cholesterol, a significant risk factor of CVD.25, 26, 28 In addition, studies have demonstrated the benign impacts of PA in improving fibrinolytic capacity,25 assisting vascular modeling,29 and reducing blood coagulation,30 all of which independently and collectively reduce cardiovascular

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