Risk Factors For Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder affecting children and adults, peaking between the ages of 2 and 5 years old then rising slowly after the age of 50 (Pui, Robison, & Look, 2008). While effective treatments have raised the cure rate to over 80%, ALL remains the second leading cause of death from cancer in children (Mullighan et al., 2009). There are about 6,250 new cases of ALL with about 1,450 deaths, mainly affecting more males than females and more whites than African Americans ("Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic," 2011). Since ALL affects the lymphocytes it can be part of the cell lineage of B and T lymphocytes, most cases it affects the B lineage cells (Gallegos-Arreola et al., 2013).
Pathophysiology
Risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia include radiation exposure, chemical exposures to Benzene, viral infections, some inherited syndromes, genetic changes, race/ethnicity and gender ("Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic," 2011). Low levels of radiation from medical imaging tests are not as well known for developing ALL as much as ionizing radiation (Belson, Kingsley, & Holmes, 2007). Depending on the dose, the
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These symptoms usually come from the shortage of normal blood cells, which can be seen on blood tests ("Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic," 2011). Abdomen swelling may occur due to the build up of leukemia cells in the liver and spleen, along with enlarged lymph nodes, bone or joint pain, and rarely spread to other organs ("Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic," 2011). Enlarged lymph nodes are around the neck, groin and underarms (Moynihan & Ness, 2012). Coughing and trouble breathing is possible do to an enlarged thymus, caused by a sub-type of T-cell, pressing on the trachea ("Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic,"

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