Theme Of Revolutionary Civilization: Explaining Western Power In The Modern World By Jonathan Daly

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In Jonathan Daly’s book, Revolutionary Civilization: Explaining Western Power in the Modern World, the author argues that European political fragmentation created hothouse conditions for innovation and almost constant warfare. Professor Daly’s argument is accurate for many reasons. The decentralized government of Europe had led to innovation and constant warfare which developed into “the world’s first arms race – one that never ended (Daly 94)”. I firmly believe that the political fragmentation of Europe was caused by political institutions and revolutions; as well as serving as a foundation to economic development and endless warfare during the Middle Ages. Feudalism was made the political institution during the start of the Middle Ages. …show more content…
The infantry revolution was the concept of large armies of marching foot soldiers. Eventually most of Europe would create infantry armies so they can defend themselves from constant warfare. Because political fragmentation created hothouse conditions for innovation, the infantry revolution gradually transitioned into the gunpowder revolution in the 15th century. A significant European innovation was the “corning” of gunpowder, first in England in the 1370s and across Europe by the 1420’s (Daly 101). The corned powder were broken into pellets which ignited much slower but created a massive force. Over time gunpowder evolved in different parts of the world. The hothouse conditions for innovation influenced the advancement of military and infantry warfare. The constant warfare and innovation fed off each other. Through the years of development and experimentation, the gunpowder revolution transformed into the artillery and firearms age. With these advancements came new methods of fortification and different battle tactics in order to defend and conquer the vast lands of Europe. Wealthy states were capable of investing in new weaponry for their army as well as new fortifications for their cities. There is a cycle of rich states using their money for military advancement and seizing lands so they can tax them to purchase more weaponry (Hall 58). This is an example of political fragmentation leading to constant …show more content…
The reason they strived in the international trade market was because they dropped their transaction costs. Western Europe then opened different routes to worldwide trade. They controlled the international market with their strategy and innovation. Different bankers and merchants dominated the trade routes that transported raw goods along the Baltic Sea, North Sea, and major rivers” (Isaac, 1-2). A new eastern trade route ended the domination by the Ottoman Turks. This was European’s opportunity to explore and develop into the governing state for international trade. Because of the expansion of world wide trading, the European economy progressed and developed across different

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