Research Essay

923 Words Sep 16th, 2012 4 Pages
RELATION BETWEEN MUSIC LISTENING AND STRESS
 Some studies have shown decrease in cortisol levels following positive mood induction or in correlation with trait positive effect.
 Several studies have shown that music reduces stress and cortisol levels before, during and after medical procedures.
 Fast-tempo music has been found to be just as effective in reducing stress as slow-tempo music.
 It has been found that fast-tempo music only can reduce stress when the music is the individual’s preferred musical taste.
 Listening to preferred music may have the strongest effects on relaxation and stress reduction (Krout, 2007) which points to the importance of considering musical preferences when studying emotional responses to music
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A major advantage with this method, if conducted correctly, is that one gets to explore participants’ ‘true’ behaviour. It is important to study emotions and behaviour in their natural setting. A disadvantage with field studies is, however, that they might jeopardize the validity of causal inferences.

3. EXPERIENCE SAMPLING METHOD One solution to the problem with retrospective accounts when using survey studies may be the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) (Conner Christensen, Barrett, BlissMoreau, Lebo & Kaschub, 2003). When frequency estimates of specific emotions are needed, the ESM can give more reliable data than the estimates obtained in survey studies. A great advantage of the ESM is that it permits one to study events as they unfold in their natural environment. But the ESM is an expensive method, it does not provide information about every single event in the participants’ lives and it places a high burden on the participants.
4. DAY RECONSTRUCTION METHOD
• A middle way between a survey study and an ESM study is the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). DRM is a method developed by Kahneman et al. (2004). The aim with the DRM is that participants should be able to reproduce the information that normally would be collected by probing experiences as they happen. Kahneman provide ample evidence that psychological constructs such as emotion are

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