Immature Defense Mechanisms

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Defense mechanisms are defined as coping strategies to deal with interpersonal stress or anxiety. According to Hovanesian and Isakov and Cervellione (2009), the different coping strategies and defense mechanisms are said to be used amongst these specific groups: individuals who have not experienced suicide ideations or attempts, individuals with suicide ideations but no attempts, and individuals who have attempted to commit suicide. There are different styles of defense mechanisms that can have a positive affect or negative affect on an individual. People who are suicidal are likely to score higher on immature defense mechanisms and lower on mature defense mechanisms. In reference to the psychometric evaluation that was conducted by Ruuttu …show more content…
(2009) subjects that were admitted in the hospital psychiatric emergency room, inpatient psychiatry unit or medical emergency room with a DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of major depressive disorder, single or recurrent without psychotic features were screened for this study (Hovanesian, Isakov & Cervellione, 2009). Patients had to be proficient in English to fill out the questionnaire. Patients who had bipolar disorder, severe organic condition, or psychotic symptoms were excluded from the study. In order for a patient to be involved, they had to be stabilized by the two study clinicians and be able to participate within the first 48 hours. The sample included 26 individuals who had no suicide attempts or ideations, 25 individuals who had ideations but have not attempted suicide, and 24 individuals who attempted suicide. Within the 48 hours, all diagnostics and symptoms assessments were completed to make sure that the measures of defense mechanisms were associated with the participant 's condition by the group they were put in. The Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), is a questionnaire that has 40 items, which is employed to determine different types of defense mechanisms an individual uses in order to cope with stress and lessen their anxiety. When filling out the DSQ-40, the subjects were advised to answer the questions based off their current state and not on how they felt in general. The Hamilton Rating Scale for …show more content…
Apter et al. (1997) study revealed that non specific defense mechanisms were being used significantly amongst adolescents who were suicidal. In addition, consistent use of displacement and infrequent use of compensation were related to adolescents who were suicidal. Immature defense mechanisms such as: denial, projection and regression enhances aggression, which can cause an individual to use that aggression towards their self, “by the maladaptive overuse of introjection, replacement, and repression” (Apter et al., 1997). As it was said before, positive defense mechanisms are displayed amongst healthy individuals, and can be beneficial. In a different study, Nicolas and Sandal and Weiss and Yusupova (2013) discovered that there were conclusive correlations between positive emotions and mature defense mechanisms. Previous research suggests that the correlation between coping styles and defense mechanisms in stressful situations indicates that they are included in psychological adaptation processes. Adaptation processes should be taken into consideration when trying to improve emotional stability and coping strategies (Nicolas, Sandal, Weiss, & Yusupova,

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