Microbiome Research Paper

What is the relationship between oral and gut microbiome and arthritis disease? The term microbiome or microbiota is defined by Joshua Lederberg (scientist worked in genetic microbiome); these organisms are found in the skin or mucus membrane. They have the ability to extract the necessary energy to stay live. The host utilizes them for digestion, production of nutrients, removal of toxins, attacks on pathogens and to strengthen the immune system (Scher and Abramson, 2011). The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) was started by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) during 2007 to a obtain better understanding of the complicated biological reactions between the microbiome and human being. By taking advantage of revolutionary culture-independent …show more content…
Moreover, there are three types of microorganisms that can live in the human mouth. Firstly, aerobic microbes which are organisms that can live only in the presence of the oxygenated environment. Secondly is facultative anaerobic microbiota (organisms that can stay with oxygen or without oxygen). Finally, anaerobic bacteria which are organisms that do not require oxygen in order to live. However, the gut only has anaerobic bacteria. It is necessary to clarify exactly what is the meaning by arthritis. This is an autoimmune disease which affects about 1% of the global adult population. Genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the development of arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by synovial membrane inflammation which leads to an invasion of synovial tissue inside the adjacent cartilage matrix with the destruction of the bone and cartilage due to imbalance in the immune systems of human body. It affects women more twice than men (Loyola-Rodriguez et al, 2010). This assay …show more content…
Studies demonstrating that the synovial liquids of patients contains some of the DNA of microbiomes, which supported the idea that in genetically susceptible people exposure to degraded products of intestinal bacteria locally in the synovium might cause inflammation. In fact, it is possible infections such as Shigella, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Yersinia cause joint inflammation, particularly, in individuals who have human leukocyte antigen-B27. This led to the assumption that the intestinal microbial products may be existent in circulation (transport of fluid in the body in circular form in the circulatory system) and the synovial tissue inflammation may be caused by arthritogenic bacteria. The proof for this comes from the existence of products from the microbial cell wall in the joints of arthritic people and the variations observed among the competition of the intestinal bacteria in arthritis patients and healthy people. Moreover, there is evidence indicating that the bacterial culture in the intestine may be affected by the host major histocompatibility complex genes (they are specific genes of cells which work to control the immune system of the body). Recent findings have recommended that the microbial products can lead to the generation of pro-inflammatory molecules which affect the

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