Essay on Registered General Nursing Student

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Section A: Basic Microbiology

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SCOPE AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN MICROBIOLOGY
“Science contributes to our culture in many ways, as a creative intellectual activity in its own right, as a light which has served to illuminate man’s place in the uni-verse, and as the source of understanding of man’s own nature” —John F. Kennedy (1917–63) The President of America

The bacterium Escherichia coli

INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE
MICROBIOLOGY is a specialized area of biology (Gr. bios-life+ logos-to study) that concerns with the study of microbes ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification. Microorganisms are microscopic (Gr. mikros-small+ scopein-to see) and independently living cells that, like humans, live in communities.
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BOOK OF BASIC AND APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY Table 1.1: Major antibiotics and their microbial sources Antibiotic Bacitracin Cephalosporin Chloramphenicol Cycloheximide Cycloserine Erythromycin Griseofulvin Kanamycin Lincomycin Neomycin Nystatin Penicillin Polymyxin B Streptomycin Teicoplanin Tetracycline Vancomycin Microbial source

Bacillus licheniformis Cephalosporium acremonium Streptomyces venezuelae Streptomyces griseus Streptomyces orchidaceus Streptomyces erythraeus Penicillium griseofulvum Streptomyces kanamyceticus Streptomyces lincolnensis Streptomyces fradiae Streptomyces noursei Penicillium chrysogenum Bacillus polymyxa Streptomyces griseus Actinoplanes teichomyceticus Streptomyces rimosus Streptomyces orientalis

Table 1.2: Major industrial enzymes from bacteria, molds and yeasts and their applications Enzyme Bacterial Enzymes Amylase (α and β ) Microorganism Application

Bacillus

Glucose isomerase Penicillin amidase Protease Mold Enzymes α-Amylase Glucoamylase Rennet (aspartic proteinases) Pectinase Protease (aspartic proteinases) Cellulase

Bacillus, Streptomyces Bacillus Bacillus

Starch coatings (paper), desizing (textiles), removal of stains, detergents (drycleaning) Fructose syrup Pharmaceutical Detergent, spot removing, desizing, wound cleaning

Aspergillus Aspergillus, Rhizopus Mucor miehei Aspergillus, Sclerotinia Aspergillus Aspergillus, Trichoderma

Baking (Bread) Syrup and glucose manufacture, digestive aid (pharmaceutical) Cheese Drinks

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