Essay On Roaring Cycle

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Behavioural Ecology
Comparison between the roaring rate of the red deer in Richmond Park and in wildlife

R ed deer males use a deep guttural vocalization (roar) to attract females. Previous studies have correlated high roaring rates to higher reproductive success. In this study, we investigated the influence of living in a limited area such as Richmond Park (RP), with direct human contact in roaring rate of red deer. The roaring rate of three males living in RP were calculated and compared to the rate of six free-ranging males recorded in previous work. Our data shows that, although there is a trend in reduction of red deer’s roaring rate in RP, this difference is not statistically significant. The importance that roaring rates have in avoiding
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In fact, males usually perform roaring contests, preceding the parallel walk, only when there is no considerable size discrepancy between competitors, and fight only happens when no stag stablishes an obvious advantage by vocalization7. Although the three stags observed in our study, and the six stags recorded in the previous work were not involved specifically in roaring contests, roaring might repel weaker males. This might causes only stags with similar features and/or chances to win a fight to cohabit the same area and to compete for females. In a population perspective, roars could reduce the amount of energy spent by males to search for competitors and to fight for females, consisting in an evolutionary advantage to the specie. Therefore, even in such different environments, stags probably keep a relatively similar roaring rate to avoid unnecessary waste of energy, and such difference in environmental features would not be enough to discourage them to roar.
Nevertheless, our study was based in only in three males, and such small N may generate inconclusive data. Further studies may be required to confirm or reject our

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