The Civil War, one of the most brutal and bloody wars in US History ended in 1865, and left the country in ruin. Abraham Lincoln, the president of the U.S at the time came up with the plan to re-build the country after the war. He called it Reconstruction Plan. The Reconstruction Plan was put to use right after the war in 1865 and ended in 1877. Within the Reconstruction Plan, Lincoln offered a model for reinstatement of Southern states called the 10 percent Reconstruction plan. And also, during reconstruction period, we witnessed the emerged of Black Code which created the Fourteen and Fifteen Amendments and followed up by the 1876 election and Southern Segregation.
In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln began preparing his plan for
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But the Black Codes denied them the rights to testify against whites, to serve on juries or in state militias, or to vote, and express legal concern publicly. April 1866, Congress passed the first Civil Rights Act, which declared black to be citizens of the United State and gave the federal government power to intervene in state affairs to protect the rights of citizens (p377). To safeguard the rights for black permanently, states ratified the 14th Amendment and enfranchised black men with the 15th Amendment. The 14th offered the first constitutional definition of American citizenship. Everyone born in the United States, and everyone naturalized, was automatically a citizen and entitled to all the “ privileges and immunities” guaranteed by the Constitution, including equal protection of the laws by both the state and national governments (p377). The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" It was passed by the Congress in 1870.
The United States presidential election of 1876 was one of the most disputed and controversial presidential elections in American history. In the election, the Republicans nominated Rutherford B. Hayes, three-time governor of Ohio and a champion of civil service reform. The