Ralph Sogdill Power And Influence Theory

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Ralph M. Stogdill

Ralph Stogdill was pivotal in redirecting leadership research since his first article in 1948. For over 30 years Stogdill exerted decisive influence over the field of leadership, and the creation of Trait theory. During his tenure, Stogdill developed over half a dozen different sets of measurement scales and manuals, wrote over 150 articles, and authored several books. Nevertheless, his first article, "Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature," published in 1948, is his most influential work.
In his opus, Stogdill surveyed 120 articles attempting to determine the traits and characteristic of leaders, since previous surveys did not define leaderships, or there were errors in the methods.
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The primary Power and Influence Theories are transactional and transformational leadership theories. Transactional leadership theories, also known as management theories, are characterized by mutual beneficial transactions made between the leader in the followers. This is based off the notion humans generally seek to maximize pleasurable experiences and to diminish on unpleasant experiences. Therefore, effective transactional leadership involves motivating and directing followers primarily through appealing to their own interest. Therefore, it is important to develop a mutual reinforcing environment, for which the individual and the organizational goals are in sync. This theory is heavily applied to business settings. Transformational leadership theories are based on the notion that people are motivated by the tasks that must be performed. This theory suggests that the more structured in the organization as the greater success, due to people putting the needs of the organization first, and the individual interests second. This is due to the believed placement of community above individual ego. For this change to occur the leader must have charisma, inspirational motivational skills, be intellectually stimulating, and have idealized influence. Additionally, this change in egocentricity is reinforced by individual consideration of the leaders which reward followers for words, talents, and

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