# RSA

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Introduction
RSA is a type of cryptography that is use for encrypting and decrypting of messages. It was created by Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard M. Adleman in the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adleman) is named after the three inventors. RSA is still widely used for securing the confidentiality and authenticity of an e-mail. It is also use to secure communication through the internet. It is particularly useful when conducting e-commerce. Some of the security protocols that is using RSA is the SSL/TLS, SET, SSH, S/MIME, PGP and DNSSEC.
RSA is a type of public key cryptography which is also known as asymmetric cryptography. Asymmetric cryptography uses a public key and a private key. This
Breaking an algorithm means that there’s a solution that is able to reverse or solve the algorithm which takes a lot of less time compare to when cracking using other attacks such as brute force attack. Cracking the RSA means that using other methods to attack the algorithm without solving the algorithm itself.
The most common known RSA is the RSA 512 bits, 1024 bits, 2048 bits and 4096 bits. RSA 512 bits has 155 decimal digits, while RSA 1024 bits has 309 decimal digits. The greater the bits, the greater the decimal digits.
Currently, RSA-155 (512 bits) is no longer in use. This due to the fact that the it was broken in the year 1999. Although the RSA-155 is first broken in 1999, Benjamin Moody attempted to factored the RSA-155. He successfully factored the RSA-512bits key in 73 days in the year 2009. He only used a public software called GGNFS and his desktop computer with only dual-core Athlon64 at 1900MHz as a processor.
Now the most used RSA is the 1024 bits but companies, government and industry are migrating to more secure RSA which is the 2048 bits and 4096 bits. This is because the RSA 1024 bits was assumed to be secured until the year 2037. The estimation is based on using brute force attack which is also known as exhaustive key search. Brute force attack means that it is using trial and error method. In RSA, it means to try every possible key until the correct key is
it might be because the 4096 last longer than the 2048. It is well known fact that the longer the bits, the longer it will be viable. But using longer bits requires higher CPU usage and power consumption. People might also use different cryptography such as Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) rather than RSA 4096 bits when the 2048 RSA bits is no longer viable. This might be because ECC provides the same security as RSA but they have advantages of memory and speed consumption. 4096 bits RSA might be safe from brute force attack but it still vulnerable to channel side attack.
In 2013, three Israeli Security Researchers at Tel Aviv University cracked the 4096 bit RSA by analyzing the sound emitted by the CPU when decrypting the message. This method of attack is called Acoustic Cryptanalysis attack. The three researchers are Daniel Genkin, Eran Tromer and Adi Shamir (co-inventor of RSA). They extract 4096-bit key by recording noise from the laptop device when decrypting using a smartphone device placed near the laptop. Using the Acoustic Cryptanalysis attack, they were able to get a long RSA key in less than one

• ## Nt1310 Unit 7 Assignment 1

As we know cryptography is process of encryption and decryption of our original information into secret message and vice versa. Two famous methods of cryptography are symmetric key and asymmetric key. In symmetric key a common key is used for both encryption and decryption of message. The widely used algorithm for this is DES. Asymmetric key cryptography is much more secure because it used two keys private and public.…

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• ## Nt1310 Unit 8 Access Control System

Digital signing can be provided using cryptography through the Asymmetric algorithm, Hashing functions or mixture of this two. Mostly common hash algorithm used in industries are SHA1 and MD5. Operation involve in Digital Sign are message sign and verify. To sign a message sender computes digest of messages (hash) using agreed hash function, cryptographic signature is made by encrypting the digest using sender’s private key and digital signature sent along with message. Message itself may not be necessarily be private.…

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• ## Differences Between Cryptography And Steganography

1.1 Overview Cryptography is the science/practice of “writing in secret” (“crypto”= “secret, “graphy” = “writing”). Cryptographic functions are generally defined as algorithms or protocols, rules that govern how data is processed to turn plaintext (unencrypted data) into cipher text (encrypted data) [1]. Cryptography is a method of storing and transmitting data in a form that only those it is intended for can read and process. It is considered a science of protecting information by encoding it into an unreadable format. Cryptography is an effective way of protecting sensitive information as it is stored on media or transmitted through untrusted network communication paths.…

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• ## Diffie And Hellman

Now, the key exchange process uses public key cryptography to authenticate the user, done using session key pairs that are renewed over short time intervals for each session. After this exchange, secrets and keys are computed and the parties begin encrypting all the traffic between them, using the session key that was agreed…

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• ## Assignment 2: Symmetric Cryptography

Symmetric Cryptography In every work station, there is a key which encrypts the data whenever shared it over the internet to another work station. Sender encrypts the data and sends it to another computer. Receiver decrypts the code with the same key. The main problem here is not with the data, but with the distribution of key. There are some problems with key sharing.…

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• ## Bilinear Complexity Assumptions

This algorithm takes the security parameter σ as input to create the following parameters: q as a large prime, two groups G_1,G_2 of order q and a bilinear map e ̂:G_1×G_1→ G_2,g is a random generator of G_1, e is random element of Z_q^* and one cryptographic hash Functions H:〖{0,1}〗^*⟶G_1. FilEncrypt: To protect data privacy and undesired accesses, the file collection F should be encrypted before outsourcing them onto remote servers which are not within their trusted domains. To do so, S encrypts each file F_i∈F using a standard symmetric encryption algorithm(AES). Each file F_i comprising of an unique identifier 〖ID〗_i∈〖{0,1}〗^n. To protect the file identifiers 〖ID〗_i, S encrypts this 〖DI〗_i also with AES encryption technique, such technique assurances that if the same file identifier is encrypted multiple times, it will create different ciphertexts but all decrypted to the same value.…

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is based from a quote "Show me the money!" of Jerry Maguirre movie while a control password can be "atreyu09" from the character Atreyu of The Never Ending Story II movie. The result indicates that 11% out of 146 control passwords are cracked compared to only 4% of 144 mnemonic passwords. However, it is suggested to avoid creating mnemonic phrases that are well-known in the internet. C. Forensics When a successful attack is executed on a website through an authenticated, it is important to verify whether the source is from the real account owner or the perpetrator…

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• ## Information Technology And Cryptography

Background One of the most significant factors of information technology and communication since the rise of Internet is the security of data. Internet security has gained an importance because of the increasing number of Internet users. Cryptography and steganography are two approaches used to secure information. Cryptography was a technique created to secure the privacy of communication and in order to keep the contents of a message secret a number of various approaches were developed to encrypt and decrypt data. Regrettably, in some situation it might be not enough to keep the contents of a message secret, it might be vital to keep the presence of the message secret.…

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• ## Characteristics Of Cryptographic Primitives

Cryptographic primitives are basic algorithms that used to create a protocol in the computer. The algorithm is the basic part of designing a encrypting systems. The security level of a computer system depends on the reliable level of the cryptographic primitives. Here is a detailed graphic on what is included and the types of cryptographic primitives in the CNG. Figure 6.1 CNG cryptographic primitives Among all the types of cryptographic primitives, one-way hashing function and encryption function are most commonly used in our daily life.…

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• ## Test And Security Evaluation Narrative Essay

There are three main types of classical encryption methods or ciphers: transposition, substitution and product ciphers. One of the well known and most widely used asymmetric encryption methods is RSA algorithm. Another technology for hiding data within the contents is ‘Digital Watermarking’. Traditional watermarks may be applied to visible media (image or whereas in digital watermarking, the signal may be audio, pictures, video, texts, or 3D models. The formal study of information hiding is called ‘steganography’.…

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