Quantitative Research Methodology

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According to Creswell (2003) a researcher makes his claim on the basis of a set of certain assumptions which is known as research paradigm. Filsread (1979) defines research paradigm as "set of interrelated assumptions about the social world which provides a philosophical and conceptual framework for the organized study of that world". Creswell (1994) describes assumptions of research paradigms as "Ontology" in which researchers make claims about the knowledge that what is it, "Epistemology" refers that how the knowledge will be identified, "Axiology" defines the ethics and social values related to research, "Rhetoric" explains the style of languageof research report, and “Methodology" describes the procedure of learning or reading. Mertens …show more content…
The reason for choosing the quantitative approach is that it satisfies the purpose of this study is to examine organizational learning culture of universities ' role in the Punjab Teachers critical thinking ability. Quantitative research includes a number of different research forms as descriptive, associational, and difference studies. Fraenkel and Wallen (2000) state that descriptive research defines and investigates the research problem, sums up the uniqueness of the sample, attitudes and behavior of problem. They describethat the associational research finds out the correlation between the variables. Lastly, the difference research investigates the statistical significance of a difference on mean values of a variable measured in two different situations. Another advantage of this approach is that through quantitative methods of data collection the information can be collected. Ary et al. (1996) Fraenkle &Wallen (2000) further differentiate between the correlation and causal research studies which are the two categories of the associational research. Fraenkel and wallen (2000) suggest that in correlation research the researcher investigates a set of data to find out whether the relationship between variables exists or not, and researcher examines the association which exists in the natural state without influencing the respondents. On the other hand, casual research includes the collection of clusters with identified differences and determinesthe variables that may create the difference. Fraenkel and Wallen (2000) describe another type of quantitative research which is known as experimental methods that is most appropriate for analysis or investigating hypothetical model and observe causation. This type of quantitative research permits the examiner to find out the changes which affect the desired outcomes. In short, there are many

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