Public Health Impact on the Control of Malaria in Sub - Saharan Africa

3361 Words Apr 24th, 2012 14 Pages
The prevalence of malaria in sub Saharan Africa remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the continent. The epidemic possesses a major threat to the economic development and public health. The Sub-Saharan Africa as a geographical term refers to the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara, majority of the countries lie along the tropics thus allowing a favourable climatic condition for the survival and reproduction of the vector of this killer disease.
The pandemic outbreak of malaria several decades ago, before the advent of the Millennium development goals (MDGs), claimed so much lives in Africa. This was greatly influenced by
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repeated cycles of asexual multiplication as well as male and female sexual forms, called gametocytes are formed in the blood stream waiting to be ingested by mosquito before further completion of the life cycle. Asexual blood stage parasites produce 8–20 new merozoites every 72 hours causing parasite numbers to increase rapidly to about 1013 per host cell. During this asexual stage of multiplication, infected individuals can present with various illness and complications of malaria affecting different organ systems that can last for months if not treated. Sexual stage parasites are non-pathogenic but are transmissible to the Anopheles vector, where they recombine during a brief period of diploidy and generate genetically distinct sporozoites .The mosquito becomes infectious to its next blood meal donor approximately two weeks after ingesting gametocytes, a time frame that is influenced by the external temperature.

Adapted from Malaria: progress, perils, and prospects for eradication. Designed by (Mikolajczak et al., 2006).
The world malaria report 2011, reported an estimate of 3.3 billion people were at risk of malaria, 216 million cases were recorded out of which 174 million were from sub Saharan Africa. This killer disease accounted for approximately 537 000 to 907 000 deaths in the world, and sub Saharan Africa contributed about 91% of the deaths. (596 000, range 468 000 – 837 000) (WHO 2011). Children

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