Essay about Proteins Of Proteins And Amino Acids

1517 Words Oct 25th, 2016 7 Pages
Proteins are large, complex molecules found throughout the body. They are polymers made out of different types of small unites called amino acids. Each amino acid consists of a central carbon atom, which is attached to a hydrogen atom, an amino group, a carboxyl group, and a unique side chain or R group. There are twenty different types of amino acids and each one of them has different chemical properties. Amino acids are held together by covalent peptide bonds therefore the proteins, chains of amino acids, are also called polypeptides. Proteins’ structures have four levels of organization. The primary structure consists of amino acid sequences, which determine the structures and functions of the proteins. Amino acid sequence for each distinct protein is different and for all molecules of the same proteins the sequence is the same. The secondary structures are local folding patterns of polypeptides, which include alpha helices and anti-parallel beta sheets. These two folding patterns are common because of the hydrogen bonding between the N-H and C=O groups in the backbone of the polypeptide. An alpha helix is generated by a single polypeptide chain coiled up clockwise very tightly. In cell membranes, transport proteins and receptors have an outsized amount of alpha helices’ short regions. Beta sheets generate very rigid and pleated structures, and they form the core of many proteins. In parallel beta sheets, the neighboring segments run in the same orientation and in…

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