Probiotic GOS Essay

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Biotechnology and probiotic GOS (Galacto-oligo-saccharides)
INTRODUCTION
What are Prebiotics? Prebiotics are commonly defined as non- digestible polysaccharides and oligosaccharides. These prebiotics enhance the growth of beneficial bacteria like lactic acid bacteria in intestinal tract and also exert antagonistic property against some other species like salmonella sp. or E. coli. Some scientist also defined other properties of prebiotics; which includes resistance to gastric activity, stimulation of some selective growth, and enhancement of growth of intestinal bacteria. There exist a number of prebiotics which are classified on the basis of their origin and chemical properties. Prebiotics include Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), Galacto-oligosaccharides
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Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are used as non- digestible carbohydrate - based food ingredients in human and animal nutrition. They have ability to enhance the proliferation of intestinal Bifidobacterium and lactobacillus .These Bifidobacteria have beneficial effects on health of human, provide protection from infection and facilitate normal function of Gut.
GOS also have some other useful properties they are stable under acidic condition and during food processing that’s why can b use as ingredient for variety of food products. Their low sweetness and taste quality makes them applicable as functional sweetener. (Splechtna, Nguyen et al. 2006)
TRANSGALACTOSYLATION Galacto-oligosaccharides basically are the products of the transgalctosylation procedure which is catalyzed by the enzyme beta-galactosidase when using lactose and some other galactosides as substrate. Beta-Galactosidases are basically classified as Hydrolases. In this reaction mainly hydrolysis of glycosidic- bond is done in which the galactosyl acceptor is water. Transgalctosylation include both intermolecular as well as Intramolecular reactions.(Sako, Matsumoto et al.
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Aspergillus aculeatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae , Penicillum expansum ,penicillium funiculosum, Trichoderma harizanum, Talaromyces thermophiles etc (Torres, Gonçalves et al. 2010)
Procedure:
We can produce GOS using above mention microbes. But here we use Aspergillus oryzae beta galactosidases for production of GOS, immobilized on cotton cloth.
Different methods are used like ….
 GOS production in immobilized Enzyme Reactor.
 GOS production in continuous Reactor.
Immobilized Enzyme Reactor. Formation of GOS with immobilized enzyme was studied in a recycle batch fixed-bed reactor. For this purpose
Take small amount of cotton cloth (approximately 4.5g) in a glass column reactor (whose diameter =9mm) with a water jacket which maintained temperature constant at 40*C. ↓ Take solution of lactose in flask (50ml total volume of solution). ↓
Then continuously re-circulate with the help of immobilized enzyme reactor which work at the flow rate that is 90mL/min.(Albayrak and Yang 2002) Fig.1 diagram of cotton cloth reactor with immobilized enzyme.

Preparation of Lactose

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