Type 1 diabetes (type 1 diabetes mellitus) and type 2 diabetes (type 2 diabetes mellitus) are long-term (chronic) diseases. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas does not make enough of a hormone called insulin. In Type 2 diabetes, one or both of these problems may be present:
• The pancreas does not make enough insulin.
• The cells in the body are less responsive to the insulin that is made (insulin resistance).
Normally, insulin moves sugars from food into tissue cells. The tissue cells use the sugars for energy. The lack of insulin or the lack of normal response to insulin causes excess sugars to build up in the blood instead of going into the tissue cells. As a result, high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) …show more content…
• Restless sleep.
• A change in speech.
• A change in coordination.
• Treat hypoglycemia right away. If you are alert and able to swallow safely, follow the 15:15 rule:
• Take 15–20 grams of a rapid-acting carbohydrate. Rapid-acting options include glucose gel, glucose pills, or 4 oz (120 mL) of fruit juice, regular soda, or low-fat milk.
• Check your blood glucose level 15 minutes after you take the carbohydrate.
• If the repeat blood glucose level is still at or below 70 mg/dL, take 15–20 grams of a carbohydrate again.
• After your blood glucose level returns to normal, eat a meal or a snack within 1 hour.
• Be alert to early signs of hyperglycemia, such as feeling very thirsty and urinating more frequently than usual. Early awareness of hyperglycemia allows for prompt treatment. Treat hyperglycemia as told by your health care provider.
• Do at least 30 minutes of physical activity a day, or as much physical activity as your health care provider recommends during your pregnancy. Doing 10 minutes of physical activity 30 minutes after each meal may help to control postprandial blood glucose levels.
• If you start a new exercise or activity, adjust your insulin or food intake as …show more content…
If you need help quitting, ask your health care provider.
• Do not use alcohol.
Caring for Your Body
• Perform skin and foot care every day. Check your skin and feet every day for cuts, bruises, redness, nail problems, bleeding, blisters, or sores. Schedule a foot exam with your health care provider one time each year.
• Schedule an eye exam during the first trimester of your pregnancy, or as told by your health care provider.
• Keep your immunizations up to date.
• Brush your teeth and gums two times a day, and floss at least one time a day. Visit your dentist at least one time every 6