Relationship Between Positive Future Expectations And Symptoms Of Depression

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When thinking positive, you are thinking on the bright side of what can potentially happen. Many people positively fantasize about their futures. Some people who think positive, expect positive results, as we all should. Can those positive thoughts lead to something worse eventually? I have always been taught to think positive, to never let negative thoughts get you down. Always think positive, think it into existence or it will never happen. There are people who have been taught, and studies have shown that this way of thinking or fantasizing can lead to depression longitudinally. There were many hypotheses throughout this research. Hypothesis 1: the more positively people fantasize, the more they should become depressed over time …show more content…
Study 1 was about the “Positive Future fantasies and Symptoms of Depression in College Students” (Oettingen et al, 2016, p.2). The researchers examined the relations between positive future fantasies and symptoms of depression in 88 college students, concurrently and longitudinally. The students completed one measure at the beginning of the school semester and another one at the end. The students were given 12 open scenarios. Four of them was related to achievement, 4 to interpersonal relations, and 4 to health. They were told to think about the scenario and then write them down. Then they had to rate them separately for positivity and negativity. To get a positivity-of-fantasies score the researchers subtracted the negative score from the positive score. The researchers used Center of for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) to assess symptoms of depression. They measured the depressive symptoms by subtracting the results of the first measure from the second …show more content…
The researchers used 148 college students. In October students completed the measures of fantasies and depression. Two months later (December) they completed another one. These measures were done in class this time, since the researchers were measuring academic success. The recorded their grades from their midterms and final exams to determine the change in academic success. They used the same measure of positivity of fantasies, and asked the participants to rate their thoughts as in study 1. They measured study effort at time 2 (December) by asking how many hours did the students use to prepare for the midterm and final. Finally they used the improvement in course grades from midterm to final. They subtracted the midterm grade from the final grade. The researchers measured the depressive symptoms by using the same method done in Study 1 -3. As the researchers used those methods for each study, they received results. In study 1, The more positively participants fantasized, the fewer symptoms of depression, they showed at Time 1, but the more symptoms they showed a month later. Study 2 and study 3 results were the same as study 1, except more symptoms were shown 7 months later (study 2) and 6 months later (Study 3). In study 4, positivity of fantasies indirectly predicted low academic success through low study effort. Low academic success predicted higher symptoms of depression over 2

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